c Au4E 1957 1/1 B RARY OF THE U N I VER_SITY Of 1LLI NOIS Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2012 with funding from University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign http://archive.org/details/augustacollegeauOOrank "It is one of the most beautiful situations on the Ohio. AUGUSTA COLLEGE AUGUSTA, KENTUCKY First Established Methodist College 1822-1849 Walter H. Rankins Roberts Printing Company Frankfort, Ky. 1957 Copyright 1949 by Walter H. Rankins Second Printing 1957 Copyright 1957 c Hsf n 1, ■■/> 4 To the Memory of my Father and Mother Albert Edwin and Emma Taylor Rankins who had a prominent part in the educational and business life In P of Augusta, Kentucky PREFACE Only a farmer or a farmer's son can tell you why some apparently sleepy town often exerts an influence for miles around far exceeding that of larger places. Augusta, Ky., on the bank of the majestic Ohio River, 49 miles southeast of Cincinnati, is such a town. The old houses along its shaded streets have peered down on the passing parade of great historic eras in American life, and have sheltered families whose sons have influenced the destinies of whole continents. Augusta's old houses, stately and simple in style and line, have stood through all the decades since. Within the warm color of their old red brick walls was born and raised a galaxy of outstanding sons and daughters. Here, too, humbler folk — itinerant preachers, wandering printers, farmers, merchants and families moving from Kentucky — crossed from Augusta to Ohio's fertile regions on Boude's Ferry, just as the motorist can use a more modern version under the same name today. Augusta has always been one of the most pictur- esque of the Ohio River towns. From the time when the river served as the great migration route to the Northwest Territory, it has always been a good place to put in for shelter at night, to take on supplies, or to ride out a period of shallow water. In the community's 150th year the descendants of the settlers who first came from Virginia's Piedmont are fulfilling the aspirations of their pioneer forebears; to live in peace amidst beauty and plenty, in a quiet and gracious corner of the great American continent. Walter H. Rankins. June 20, 1957 105 E. Fourth St. Augusta, Kentucky ACKNOWLEDGMENT It is not easy to locate historical data of over a hundred years ago, or to verify tradition to the point where it takes form as historical data, therefore such a book as this history of Augusta College, first Methodist College, could not have been written without the gracious assistance of many friends to whom I wish to make acknowledgment here: I wish to thank Miss Marie Dickore, of Cincinnati, Ohio, for permission to quote from her article on Augusta in Tracks (a Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad publication) for the introduction to this book. I also am most grateful for the data she has furnished from her own valuable collection of Americana and for reading the manuscript. Mrs. Ben Harbeson, Mrs. Crawford Gilkeson and Miss Georgia Har- beson for the use of their cherished pictures and the facts concerning the Bradford and Marshall families. Mrs. Alberta Harvie and Mrs. Robert B. Powers for their help and encouragement. Mrs. Mark Helm of Indianapolis, Indiana, for her letter from Josiah K. Lilly about Stephen Foster's visit to Augusta. Will Rankins for relating to me the story told him by Senator Joe Blackburn. D. B. Cline for his drawing of the town plat from town records. The Reverend O. S. Crain for the use of his history of the Methodist Church. Marshall Crouch of Cynthiana, Kentucky, for the Ohio River pictures. John E. Thompson for his technical assistance. Fletcher Hodges, Jr., Curator of the Foster Hall Collection, University of Pittsburgh, for his comprehensive directive of Augusta College and Stephen Foster material. G. Glenn Clift, The Kentucky Historical Society and the Filson Club for records of the Augusta College and of Augusta, Kentucky. Miss Carolyn Taylor, of Frankfort, Kentucky, for an article in the Family Magazine, of 1838. Mrs. Alfred C. Worneweck, a niece of Stephen Foster, for her gracious permission to use parts of a letter from Mrs. Foster to her son, William, relating to her visit to Augusta. Especially do I wish to thank Dr. J. Winston Coleman, Jr., of Lexing- ton, Kentucky, for reading the manuscript and offering a number of helpful suggestions which materially improved each chapter. There are many others whom I wish to thank for their invaluable help as I have sought to gather the scenes and events of the past and to hold them as an unforgettable memory. CONTENTS Page Preface 5 Chapter I. Situation Acclaimed 13 II. Early History and Pioneer Schools 16 III. Augusta College 21 IV. Battle of Augusta 51 V. Educational Center and Cultural Surroundings 56 VI. Industrial Period 58 Epilogue 62 Index 63 ILLUSTRATIONS "It is one of the most beautiful situations on the Ohio" Frontispiece First Court Held in Augusta, Dickinson Morris Home, — Between Pages 16 and 17 A Building of the Bracken Academy, Established in 1798, — Between Pages 16 and 17 "Martin Marshall Homestead" on Riverside Drive, — Between Pages 16 and 17 The Ryan-Dunbar Home, one of the earliest in Augusta, — Between Pages 16 and 17 Original Building, Augusta College, Augusta, Kentucky, — Between Pages 20 and 21 Gen. John Payne, Dr. J. J. Bradford Home on Riverside Drive, birthplace of Laura Bradford Marshall Between Pages 20 and 21 An Acrostic, by Rev. Joseph S. Tomlinson, D.D., President of Augusta College, Kentucky Between Pages 24 and 25 "White Hall," Ancestral Home of Gen. George C. Marshall, Augusta, Kentucky Between Pages 24 and 25 "Echo Hall," Dormitory of the First Established Methodist College in the World, on Frankfort Street Between Pages 32 and 33 Diploma of Jacob Best, Augusta College, 1838 Between Pages 32 and 33 Home of Rev. Joseph Tomlinson, D.D., President of Augusta College Between Pages 32 and 33 The B. F. Power Home on Elizabeth Street Between Pages 32 and 33 Doorway to "Piedmont," Home of Dr Joshua T. Bradford Between Pages 40 and 41 College Building on Bracken Street where Hanson Penn Diltz wrote "Hollow Bracken" Between Pages 40 and 41 ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued Marshall-Bradford Home on Riverside Drive. . . .Between Pages 40 and 41 The Doniphan-Felix Home on Fourth Street. . . .Between Pages 40 and 41 Augusta Female College, 1852-1860 Between Pages 48 and 49 Home of William J. Rankins and Jane Silverthorn Rankins Between Pages 48 and 49 Augusta Male and Female College, 1868-1879 Between Pages 48 and 49 The Cleveland-Harbeson Home on Fourth Street. Between Pages 48 and 49 The Sylvanus McKibben Home on Williams Street Between Pages 56 and 57 The Augusta Public and High School. A large Gymnasium has been added Between Pages 56 and 57 Knoedler Memorial Library Between Pages 56 and 57 Within this Row was the Girls' School of Miss "Birdie" Blades Between Pages 56 and 57 "Where the River Runs in a Direct Course for Several Miles" Facing Page 62 AUGUSTA COLLEGE Chapter I SITUATION ACCLAIMED Nestling among a bower of trees on the edge of the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky lies the town of Augusta. "It is one of the most beautiful situa- tions on the Ohio," where the river runs in a direct course for several miles and where the sunsets send a riot of color aloft to gild the clouds against the blue of the early evening sky, while the shadows of light and dark sil- houette the high Kentucky hills — and as the day closes a blanket of purple and grey envelops the low rolling Ohio hills, that seem to extend down to the very water's edge of the river's bend, to make the setting and the scene one of the most beautiful in all the world. Early travelers acclaimed the beauty of the situation: William Newton Mercer wrote: " * * * and is in my opinion one of handsomest towns on the river," 1 and Zadok Cramer "attested to the beauty of the place." 2 Founded in pioneer days, Augusta's influence was destined to extend to the remote corners of the earth. "As early as June, 1773, Robert McAfee left his company, who had reached Limestone Creek (Maysville, Ky.) and made an excursion through the contiguous country. Passing up Limestone Creek to its source, he struck across the dividing ridge to the waters of the north fork of Licking, and proceeded down the stream some twenty or twenty-five miles, and then directed his course over the hills of the present county of Bracken, to the Ohio River. When he reached the river, he ascertained that his company had passed down. Determined to follow as speedily as possible, he instantly went to work, and, with the use of his tomahawk and knife, cut down and skinned a tree, and constructed a bark canoe, which he completed about sundown on the same day of his arrival. Committing himself to the frail craft, he floated down the river, and on the succeeding day — the twenty- seventh of June, overtook his company at the mouth of the Licking." 3 In the year 1775 a party composed of ten men — Samuel Wells, Hayden Wells, Thomas Tebbs, John Tebbs, John Rust, Mathew Rust, Thomas 1 William Newton Mercer, Diary — 1816, Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly. 2 Zadok Cramer, The Navigator, Pittsburgh, 1814. 3 Lewis Collins, Historical Sketches of Kentucky, Maysville and Cincinnati, Ohio, 1850, Page 453. 14 Augusta College Young, William Tripplett, Richard Masterton, and Jonathan Higgs — came to what is now Bracken County. 1 They stayed only a short time as the Indians were operating out of the Licking River, and the Miami towns were not far distant, making Bracken County untenable. So they turned back to Limestone (Maysville) and Washington to the companionship of other parties who had come down the Ohio and had located there. These men had found in Bracken County mute evidence of a great struggle between a race of men said to be almost of giant size, traditionally called White Indians (Welch) and the American Red Indians. The Red Indians, by superior numbers, had exterminated their foes, and the site of what was to be Augusta had been probably one of their most decisive battles. A letter from General John Payne who had resided many years in Augusta, and who was an active, brave, and efficient officer under Harrison at the Mississinaway towns, and on the north-west frontier during the last war with Great Britain, gives the following interesting account of the ancient remains discovered in that place: "The bottom on which Augusta is situated is a large burying ground of the ancients. A post hole cannot be dug without turning up human bones. They have been found in great numbers, and of all sizes, everywhere be- tween the mouths of Bracken and Locust creeks, a distance of about a mile and a half. From the cellar under my dwelling, sixty by seventy feet, one hundred and ten skeletons were taken. I numbered them by the skulls; and there might have been many more, whose skulls had crumbled into dust. The skeletons were of all sizes, from seven feet to the infant. David Kilgour (who was a tall and very large man) passed our village at the time I was excavating my cellar, and we took him down and applied a thigh bone to his — the owner, if well proportioned, must have been some ten or twelve inches taller than Kilgour, and the lower jaw bone would slip on over his, skin and all. Who were they? How came their bones there? Among the Indians there is no tradition that any town was located near here. When I was in the army, I inquired of old Crane, a Wyandott, and of Anderson, a Delaware, both intelligent old chiefs (the former died at Camp Seneca in 1813) , and they could give no information in reference to these remains of antiquity. They knew the localities at the mouths of Locust, Turtle, and Bracken creeks, but they knew nothing of any town or village near there. In my garden, Indian arrow heads of flint have been found, and an earthen- ware of clay and pounded mussels. Some of the largest trees of the forest were growing over those remains when the land was cleared in 1792. " 2 1 Land Book — Mason County, Kentucky. 2 Collins' History of Kentucky. Pages 209-210. Augusta College 15 "On the 19th day of November 1794, the King of England at his palace, signed the treaty of peace between his country and the United States of America. "His Majesty will withdraw all his troops and garrisons from all posts and places within the boundary lines agreed by the treaty of peace. This evacuation shall take place on or before the first day of June one thousand seven hundred and ninety-six . . . All settlers and traders within the pre- cincts of jurisdiction of said posts shall continue to enjoy unmolested all their property . . . ni So the settlers would be unmolested and they could found their settle- ments "where they will." That was good news. Captain Philip Buckner had acquired this site, Augusta, for his Revo- lutionary War service and had laid off the town in lots, streets, and alleys. And in the October 2 issue of the Kentucky Gazette, in the year 1795, there is an account of a sale of lots at public auction on the third of November, six months credit for one-half of the purchase money and twelve months for the other half; and Philip Buckner's Augusta lots changed hands. There came to this part of Mason County many of the most prominent and wealthy families from the towns of Washington and Limestone: thus, Augusta began to grow. They migrated to this promising location, with its fine harbor and its lovely situation, to cast their lot in a new and fast growing part of the county, and were later to become prominent citizens and early trustees of Augusta. Kentucky Gazette, August 1, 1795. 16 Augusta College Chapter II EARLY HISTORY AND PIONEER SCHOOLS Bracken County became a county on December 14, 1796, and was taken from Mason and Campbell counties. With the petitions of the men who had purchased lots and had located here, an act was passed by the Kentucky Legislature for the establishment of a town by the name of Augusta, and the following men were appointed trustees: Francis Wells, Robert Thome, Robert Davis, James Meranda, John Boude, John Hunt, and Joseph Logan. On October 2, 1797, at the request of Philip Buckner, these trustees met with him and negotiated for the six hundred acres of land on which Augusta is located. John Hunt and William Hord went the security of the trustees in the amount of one thousand pounds, and a record was to be made with the court. The second meeting of the trustees was not held until the fifth day of June, 1798, at the home of Robert Davis; the next meeting at the home of Thomas Broshiers in June 1798, when Vachel Weldon was duly elected a trustee. The following men were early trustees: Nathaniel Patterson, David Starks, Charles McClain, Dickinson Morris, William Buckner, Thomas Broshiers, Robert Schoolfield, Philip Ebert, John Sells, James Armstrong, John Marshal, James Donovan, John Payne, Dr. George W. Mackey, Abra- ham Patterson, Robert Smith, John Schoolfield, Thomas Nelson, Samuel Thomas, Dr. Anderson Keith, John Blanchard, John E. McCormick, David Davis, Joseph Morris, and Martin Marshall, Esq. Besides the trustees the buyers of lots were the following: Messrs. Brown and Beel, Isaac Meranda, Goldsmith Case, David Brunnel, John Davis, Samuel and William Brooks. Not only were these men hardy pioneers but they were men of culture, education and refinement, and there was added to this the finest of Virginia womanhood with their grace and charm: families of Taliaferro, Lee, Keith, Marshall, Doniphan, Barker, Myers, and Payne. And on this account, and as well as the favorable location, an act was approved by the Kentucky Legislature, December 22, 1798, as follows: "That Philip Buckner, Nathaniel Patterson, Samuel Brooks, William Brooks, John Blanchard, Francis Wells, Robert Davis, John Boude, John 1 First Court held in Augusta, Dickinson Morris home 7, ; , A Building of the Bracken Academy Established in 1798 "Martin Marshall Homestead" on Riverside Drive The Ryan-Dunbar Home, one of the earliest in Augusta Augusta College 17 Fee, John Pattie, and Joseph Logan shall be, and are hereby constituted a body politic and incorporate, and known by the name of the trustees of the Bracken Academy." Thus the Bracken Academy became a part of Augusta's life. A very imposing series of buildings was erected at the southeast corner of High and Elizabeth Streets, long the home of Mrs. Bell Myers. There was the brick building on Elizabeth Street with a series of low wood rooms as a dormitory, fronted by a continuous portico and extending to a large brick two-story building for classrooms, and situated on High Street. On June 5, 1799, lots were again sold at public auction. Joseph A. Smith was the auctioneer, and the following were buyers: Vachel Weldon, Na- thaniel Patterson, Charles McClain, Robert Davis, Philip Buckner, Samuel Brooks, William Brooks, Francis Wells, John Blanchard, Dickinson Morris, who was also the clerk of the sale. These lots, comprising almost the entire town, sold for $2,519.25. Roads began to be opened out of Augusta. An act was passed opening a road from Georgetown to Augusta. "Whereas it is represented to the gen- eral assembly, that the public would be benefited by opening a road from Georgetown to Augusta, in Bracken County. "Be it enacted by the general assembly, that William Henry and Rich- ard M. Gano, of Scott county, Samuel M'Million, James Caldwell and James Coleman, of Harrison county, and William Woodward and Philip Buckner, of Bracken county, be appointed commissioners, and are hereby vested with full power to cause a waggon road to be opened from Georgetown, through Scott county, Harrison county, and Bracken county, to Augusta, having due regard to the nighest and best way; and should any person, through whose waste land the said road should be viewed, object to the opening of the same, the sheriff of the county in which the land may be, shall, at the direction of the said commissioners, summon a jury to meet upon the land on a certain day in the commissioners' order mentioned, who shall be qualified to ascertain the damages that may arise by the opening said road; and the road shall not be opened until such damages shall be paid by the commissioners. 1 "Upon motion George W. Mackey to postpone the opening of the streets in the town of Augusta until the first day of November next, upon the proposition of Philip Buckner to obtain the establishing of a road from Ferry Street opposite to High Street to intersect the road to Pendleton, May 1814." A petition to open a road to Berlin was made in 1822. Augusta, with its roads to the inland towns, with its harbor so well located for an easy access, became a shipping center to all of central Kentucky. 1 William Littell, Esq., The Statute Law of Kentucky, Volume III, Frankfort, 1811, pp. 201-202. 18 Augusta College The early commercial life of the town centered around the market house, a commodious building for these early days. It was 20 x 45 feet, the floor paved and the house enclosed. It was the year 1814 and the laws governing the operations of the mar- ket house were of necessity hard and stringent. Some of them were: "That from one hour before sunrise until nine o'clock from the first day of December to the first day of March and from half an hour before sunrise until eight o'clock for the balance of the year, on Wednesday and Saturday of each week shall be the time of market. "That all food except provender for cattle or horses either animal or vegetable shall be considered articles of marketing. "That no person shall sell or buy any article of marketing within the limits of town of Augusta except at the market house, under penalty of $2.00 if a free person or not less than five or more than 10 lashes for a slave. "That no person shall sell any article for a higher amount than he paid for it. "That any free person or owner of a slave may pay the regular fine of a slave, and thereby the penalty of lashes will be revoked." 1 The first water system was installed by John McCormick: "Order that John E. McCormick permitted to dig a well in the town at the foot of the hill at the end of Main Street, provided said McCormick keeps the same secure and not injure said road, only while digging, per- mitted to convey the water to his own house by pipes, not injuring the street." [July 1819.] And the first recorded business house was that of David Starks: "The trustees of Augusta will Please make a deed for the house and part of the lot to David Starks where his hatters shop is and oblige them. Philip Buckner, Oct. 26, 1799." 2 "Dr. John N. Tomlinson and Dr. Jonathan Bradford," of the long line of the noted physicians in Augusta, 1833, were made the first board of health; and the first private schools were those of Mr. Henderson, who had a boys school in the Town Hall; Richard Keene, a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, instructor of distinction; and Z. Harmon, an English gentleman, who had a school for boys and girls. 1 Official records of the City of Augusta, Ky. 2 Ibid. Augusta College 19 "Bracken Sentinel, Augusta, Kentucky — 9/2/1820 "LITERARY NOTICE The Subscriber takes this method to inform his friends, that he has opened a SCHOOL For the reception of Scholars, in that spacious house of Captain Buckner's, in Augusta. Terms — Three dollars per quarter, and no extra charges except only for wood. The first class will particularly attend, every morning to the exemplifications of English Grammar according to the late, easy and much approved method. Therefore, any one whose avocations prevent him from attending all day, can have the privilege of this class during their exercises. The late improvement received under some of the most distinguished teachers in the United States, induces me to think that I can teach a pupil more in one month now than I used to do in three. Z. HARMON" "N.B. — A few young Ladies or Gentlemen can be accom- modated with Board at or near the School — where they can be forwarded in Geography, with the use of MAPS, and in the most useful Branches of English Literature." In 1824 William Buckner gave to the town of Augusta all the streets and alleys in Buckner's Suburb for $1.00. These streets and alleys — his property — were Water, Second, High and Mill streets, Tanyard, Cherry, Vine, Cedar, Sycamore and Seminary alleys. And a plat was to be made showing the location and numbers of the lots as now constituted the town. The first ferry, town controlled, was across the Ohio River, in 1822. Augusta was at one time the county seat of Bracken County, and the county court met in a building located on the Public Square. This building was erected as early, or earlier, than 1824 and was destroyed by fire on April 20, 1848. The county seat has been moved to the village of Brooksville, near the center of the county. Plat of Augusta, 1824 ORIGINAL BUILDING Augusta College, Augusta, Ky. The First Established College in Methodism. Commissioners appointed 1820. Chartered by Legislature of Kentucky, December 7, 1822 Building erected 1825. Building destroyed by fire 1856. &$$*& Gen. John Payne, Doctor J. J. Bradford Home, on Riverside Drive, the birthplace of Laura Bradford Marshall Augusta College 21 Chapter III AUGUSTA COLLEGE The most important and far reaching event in Augusta's early history was the merger by the trustees of the Bracken Academy with Conferences of the Methodist Church of Ohio and Kentucky to found the Augusta College. The year was 1822. The Conference from Ohio appointed a committee consisting of Martin Ruter, John Collins and David Young to confer with a like committee from the Kentucky Conference. This committee appeared at the session at Lexington. The Kentucky Conference was favorable to the proposition and appointed Charles Holliday, Henry B. Bascom and Alexander Cummins to consider the matter with the Ohio committee. Their report heartily endorsed the proposed union, and a commission consisting of Marcus Lindsay, H. B. Bascom and William Holman was appointed for the Ken- tucky Conference, to carry forward the negotiations. They went to Augusta and succeeded in effecting an agreement with the trustees of the Bracken Academy. Such was the genesis of the Augusta College. 1 By 1825 the Augusta College was ready to receive more students and the trustees thought it advisable to spread some information about its plan, curriculum, staff of professors and achievement. An advertisement about the College in a Cincinnati, Ohio, newspaper for 1825 is quoted here: "The Trustees of Augusta College, having been ap- pointed to the superintendance of an institution intended expressly for the liberal education of youth in the various branches of useful science, take this method to communi- cate to the public some information respecting its situation and prospects. In December, 1822, an act of incorporation was obtained from the Legislature of Kentucky, and a handsome brick building, pleasantly situated upon a three acre lot of ground, has been commenced, and nearly com- pleted. It already affords ample accommodations for a large number of students, and will be in a short time entirely finished. The present course of instruction is aca- demical, including Latin, Greek, and the higher branches 1 W. E. Arnold, A History of Methodism in Kentucky (Louisville, 1936), Vol. II, pp. 62-63. 22 Augusta College of English education; and is conducted by the Rev. John P. Finley, A.M. (Preparatory Department) . Another pro- fessor will in a short time be employed, and so soon as the fund of the institution shall be sufficient for the purpose, the Trustees will proceed to organize a full faculty of teachers, and establish a regular and complete course of collegiate studies. The prices of tuition are, for Latin and Greek languages, $3.00 per quarter, and for higher branch- es of English, $2.00. — The prices for boarding in respec- table families, are from one dollar, to one dollar and fifty cents per week. The College is now open for the reception and instruction of students in the above branches, and careful attention will be paid to their morals. The Trus- tees and friends of the institution are determined to do all in their power to promote its prosperity; and when the moderate price of tuition and boarding, together with the various advantages of the establishment are considered, they natter themselves that it will receive its full share of public patronage. Signed in behalf of the Trustees, John Armstrong, Pres't. Martin Marshall, Sec'y. P.S. For the further information of the public, the fol- lowing is added on the subject of raising subscriptions. The Kentucky and Ohio Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church have directed subscriptions to be opened in all the societies under their care and application to be made to individuals in both states, for the purpose of increasing the fund of the College, and when it is consid- ered that this College is established under the direction of the Methodist Church, according to the express advice of the General Conference, and under the patronage of two annual Conferences; and that the Trustees intend, so soon as their fund shall be sufficient for the purpose, to have all tuition gratis, it is confidently anticipated that the members of the Methodist Church, and the friends of the institution, will give it all the aid in their power." 1 1 Zion's Advocate and Wesleyan Register, Cincinnati, O., Jan. 29, 1825. Augusta College 23 "Augusta College, one of the best literary institutions of the West is located here. It is under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and was the first college ever established by that denomination in the world." 1 Cokesbury of Maryland was the first college organized by the Meth- odist Church but owing to a disastrous fire it was in existence for such a short time that Kentucky historians claim the first established Methodist college was at Augusta. Dr. George Savage, author of a history of "Methodist Institutions of Learning in Kentucky," wrote in 1889: "On Dec. 15, 1821 the commissioners of the two Conferences met at Augusta and after consultation with the trus- tees of Bracken Academy, they jointly determined upon the establishment of the first Methodist College in the world at Augusta, Bracken County, Kentucky, under the title of Augusta College." Dr. Daniel Stevenson, a president of the Augusta Male and Female College and a professor at Centre College, in an extensive survey found it to be true that the Augusta College was the first established Methodist college in the world. Thus the foundation of the great educational system of the Methodist Church owes its beginning to Augusta. The campus occupied several acres beginning at High Street and ex- tending to Water Street, where there was its largest dormitory, and extend- ing over Bracken and Frankfort Streets. The College buildings were sup- plemented by other buildings in the town. This location was selected on account of its healthfulness, beauty and facility of access from every part of the country. An additional inducement was the offer on the part of the trustees of the Academy to appropriate permanently the proceeds of a fund of $10,000 for the support of the college. "Among other things, the Conference of 1823 was busy with a report from the trustees of Augusta College, and the work of organizing it as a college was in the near future. Eleven delegates to the ensuing General Conference were elected, viz: Jonathan Stamper, John Brown, Charles Holliday, William Holman, Peter Cartwright, Thomas A. Morris, George McNelly, George C. Light, John Johnson, Richard Corwine, and Marcus Lindsay." 2 Peter Cartwright was also associated with the founding of three institutions of learning in Illinois: McKendree College, Illinois Wesleyan College and the University of Illinois. 3 "The immediate site of the principal edifice is a gently rising ground of several acres, commanding a pleasant view of the village, river and 1 Collins, History of Kentucky, Page 210. 2 W. E. Arnold, Methodism in Kentucky, Vol. II, p. 87. 3 Dr. John Owens Gross, Christian Advocate, Feb. 20, 1936. 24 Augusta College surrounding scenery to the distance of many miles up and down the river. The edifice is of brick, 80 feet by 40 feet, and three stories high, including the basement. It is conveniently divided into fifteen apartments, compre- hending a chapel, recitation and lecture rooms, literary society halls and libraries, college library, mineral and geological cabinet and chemical lab- oratory. Near the college campus are two refectories, sufficiently spacious to accommodate a large proportion of the students." There were students from many states. They came by stagecoach, horseback, steamboat, and probably ox cart, which was a common means of travel in that day. "From the time the institution went fully into operation as a college the annual number of students in all the departments, has ranged from 130 to 170. Besides the restraining regulations adopted by the corporation in regard to the expenses and habits of students, the village happily pre- sents but few inducements or opportunities to indulge in vice and extrava- gance and it may be safely affirmed, that there is no place of the same extent, in which moral and religious influence is more decided and per- suasive. The faculty, through their secretary, make frequent reports to the parents and guardians of students in relation to their health, habits and proficiency, with a view to secure their constant co-operation with the college authorities, in promoting the important objects for which sons and wards are placed in the institution." 1 "The collegiate year is divided into two sessions, the first commencing on the fourth Monday in September, the second on the third Monday in March and closing on the first Friday in August. Terms of admittance are $16.00 per session in the collegiate and $12.00 per session in the preparatory department. These fees are paid in advance. No extra charge is made for attending the class in Sacred Literature. The classes, however, of Modern Languages, of Fine Arts, and the Chemical Lectures, are sustained by Ticket, for which the Fee is paid to the Professors in those Departments respectively." 2 "The Public Commencement for conferring degrees is held on the third Friday in August. The customary price for boarding in the college refectories and families of the village is $2.50 per week. This sum embraces food, washing, lodging, lights, fuel and attendance. "The college is well supplied with mathematical, chemical and philo- sophical apparatus and with valuable collections of mineralogical and geo- logical specimen. On chemistry and other important branches of natural science, extended courses of lectures are given, attended with numerous appropriate experiments. In the department of Moral Science instruction 1 The Family Magazine, Cincinnati, O., 1838, page 291. 2 By-Laws, Augusta College. Original Catalog is in the possession of the author. TO Till: MEMORY OF MY DEAR DEPARTED WIFE. Kvcr green in my heart shall thy memory live. Lovely vvife of roy youth, my companion and friend: If I grieved thee io aught, thou didst meekly forgive; Zealous only to love me, and love to the end Ah! how bright was the day when I first cill'd thee mine: Pure the bliss that entwined eat harts irto one; Real plcasaro, «• hoped, oe our path would o'er shine. J-heo down to old age, yea to life's setting sun. Soda alas! very soon, overca*1 was oar >kv; Toil, care, and ill health turned my gladness to sloom: Often then did thy voice, sweet as angel's on high, Needl'il eoinfoit impart, rnd my darkness relume. Cold, although thy dear form lies beneath the green sod, \n\ shall wake never more, tilt the Judge shall appear; Methinks though thy spirit's at rest with its God, Pilgrim! sometimes it whispers me, "be of good cheer." Bleeds afresh nty poor heart, at the thought of thy uocs. Every pang thou didst suffer, still harrows my breast; Looking up to thy Lord, thou didst mark all A>? throes, Leaving all in /<(* hands, thou didst tranquilly rest. To the King that hath ransouTd and taken thee bonne, On the bright fields of bliss, thy dear children to see. May we all join in praise, through the ages to come. LinkM forever in euacurd, near life's fadeless tree. hi my pilgrimage here, be it always ray ami,— Noting all thy blest virtues, thy goodness and love, Sincerity, friendship, and truth e'er the same: — O. again would 1 pray, be it always my aim, Nought si much to secure, as to meet thee above. Octobkr, lCi'2. J. 5>. 'J'. Off I ^■M— ■ ■ I ll Ill I ■I iillli i Ill 1 — HM "White Hall," Ancestral home of General George C. Marshall, Augusta, Ky. Augusta College 25 is given alternately by recitation and lectures, that the particular advantage of each mode may be fully realized by the student, and in order that the mathematical course may be rendered as available as possible, the classes in that department are frequently exercised in the field under immediate direction of the professor. "In addition to the present property and available resources of the institution, plans are in progress which it is confidently expected, will result at no very distant day, in its ample and permanent endowment. The numerous and highly respectable bodies by whom the college is founded have each engaged to endow a professorship, one with the sum of $10,000 and the other with a sum of $14,000. The departments to which the avails of those funds are to be applied are denominated The McKendree Professorship of Moral Science and the Roberts Professorship of Mathe- matics. Considerable progress has also been made in the endowment of a third department, with a sum of $10,000, in honor of Bishop Soule of Ohio, who is also president of the Board of Trustees." 1 The aims and purposes of the College are set forth in an advertisement in the Cynthiana Observer, October 15, 1825, of a new newspaper of the Augusta College, The Augusta Chronicle: "This Journal is to be edited by the President and Professor of Augusta College, in Kentucky, and is to be under the especial patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Conferences in this State, and in Ohio. Its objects are of the highest importance in the interests of literature, science, politics, morals and religion. Its income is destined to the support of the rising seminary, whose trustees must belong to the class of Christians already named. "Though our College is destined to advance the cause of a united lit- erary and religious education among our own people, and to raise the standard of our ecclesiastical as well as our social character, yet we aim at making not only good Methodist Scholars and Christians, but to con- tribute in making good Scholars and Christians for every department and class of society. Our institution emphatically is not to be sectarian, but is earnestly desirous of harmonizing with all the other institutions of the State and the West." Other revenue was derived from the Augusta Herald and the ferry rights in the town, — its greatest investment source of income. Colleges were rare in the West in the year 1820, and as a new venture required the best thought and talent, careful consideration was given to the selection of the first officers and teachers of the Augusta College. Rev. John P. Finley, of Ohio, had been appointed to the Kentucky Conference to found the preparatory department and later was in charge The Family Magazine, 1838. 26 Augusta College as President. He was the son of Rev. Robert Finley, educated at Princeton, "and as the main building had been erected through the munificence of Capt. James Armstrong, a layman of the Methodist Church, with the aid of a few friends, the preparatory department was fully organized by August 1824, when Captain Armstrong died." 1 But he had lived to see the fulfilment of what must have been a great desire accomplished. John P. Finley died in May 1825, and his remains rest in the rear of the old Methodist Church on Riverside Drive in Augusta, where have re- sounded the voices of so many eloquent ministers. James Armstrong, Esq., built this church on the corner of Riverside Drive and Bracken Street and paid the entire cost except the tinning which the tinners would not allow him to pay. When the Collegiate Department was organized in the year 1825, Mar- tin Ruter, D.D., of Massachusetts, was made the President, and was ap- pointed professor of oriental languages and belles-lettres. He afterwards became president of Allegheny College and later founded the first Meth- odist College in Texas, which is now Southwestern University. To be under the guidance and instruction of this exceptional man was ample reason for these pioneer boys to travel such long distances, under severe hardships, and some of them left their homes as young in life as twelve years of age. It was this background of courage and determination, as well as a vision of so resplendent a future that has made America great. Joseph S. Tomlinson, A.M., D.D., professor of natural philosophy and chemistry, who was pronounced by some "the ablest debater in America," followed Martin Ruter as President and continued as President until the College charter was revoked. He was then offered the presidency of Ohio University but declined and instead became a member of its faculty. His brother was Dr. John Tomlinson, a physician in Augusta, and their sister, Eliza, and her husband, William Foster, were the parents of Stephen Col- lins Foster, the writer of so many lovely American folk songs. Some of the faculty members were: Henry B. Bascom, D.D., professor of moral science (1831-1841), the great Methodist preacher, later a bishop of the Methodist Church, chaplain of the United States House of Repre- sentatives, and president of Transylvania University. In the Louisville Conference of 1845 he took a most prominent part, winning for himself the title of "the father of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South." John P. Durbin, D.D., writer and traveller and "one of the most elo- quent divines in the United States," was professor of languages (1825- 1831) . He was chaplain of the Senate of the United States and President of Dickinson College (1834). "He is regarded as the greatest head the college has ever known." 1 W. E. Arnold, A History of Methodism in Kentucky, Vol. II, p. 63. Augusta College 27 Frederick Eckstein, painter and sculptor, an important figure in the history of Cincinnati art. Hiram Powers, the sculptor, was at one time his pupil. Eckstein was schooled in the Berlin Academy of Arts and Sciences and was one of the Academicians of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. When, in December, 1833, he came to Augusta College to teach, his salary was to be "$400 a year, besides his boarding, and he would have time to instruct a private class of young ladies in the French language." 1 Rev. J. M. Trimble, A.M., professor of mathematics. He was the son of Governor Allen Trimble of Ohio. Rev. B. H. McCown, professor of ancient languages and instructor in Spanish and French. Herman Johnson, president of Dickinson College during the Civil War. Rev. Dr. Simpson, D.D., and Mr. McLeod, instructors. Other instructors were Frederick A. Davis, M.D., professor of chem- istry and botany; Ira Root; Thomas H. Lynch, later a member of the faculty of Transylvania; John Vincent; E. W. Gray; professors Robbins, Harrison and W. H. Stewart; Hon. Francis L. Cleveland, first cousin of President Grover Cleveland and the father of Justice Harland Cleveland of Cincin- nati; Charles Targowski, professor of Modern Languages and Fine Arts; Mr. McLeod was instructor in elocution and J. L. Kemp, preceptor of the Academic Department; Mr. A. Chapman, preceptor in the Preparatory Department, and Mr. Irwin, teacher of the Primary School. Among the trustees were John Chambers, Governor of the Iowa Ter- ritory. Rev. Joshua Soule, a Bishop of the Methodist Church; Martin Mar- shall, Esq., a widely known Kentucky lawyer and a cousin of Chief Justice John Marshall. It was in his office that many boys studied law. He was the son of Rev. William Marshall of Mason County, Kentucky. Martin Marshall's son, William Champe Marshall, was educated at the Augusta College, studied law in his father's office, was a state representative for several terms and a trustee of the Bracken Female Academy. He was the father of George Catlett Marshall who fought as a boy in defense of his home town, Augusta, during the Civil War and later became an important industrialist in Pennsylvania. George Marshall married Laura Bradford, of the talented Bradford family. She was the daughter of Dr. Jonathan J. Bradford of Augusta, a noted Civil War doctor, and the sister of Dr. Thomas Stuart Bradford, a prominent Augusta physician, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College. George and Laura Bradford Marshall had four children: William S., born in Augusta, who died when a small boy; Stuart, who was born at Samuel Ewing's estate, "Meadowland," in Pennsylvania, and graduated 1 John H. James Manuscript Collection, Urbana, Ohio. 28 Augusta College from Virginia Military Institute; Marie, born in Augusta and married Dr. Singer; and George Catlett, Jr., born at Uniontown, Pennsylvania, a short time after the family left Augusta. He was in Augusta when a small boy and again at the age of seventeen, just before entering Virginia Military Institute, and later visited at the home of his uncle's family, Dr. Thomas S. Bradford and his wife, Margaret Marshall Bradford. George Catlett Marshall, Jr., who was later to thrill the world with his military genius, was Chief of Staff of the United States Army, and has held so successfully, in one of the most critical periods of American history, the most important diplomatic position in our government, that of Secretary of State of the United States. Other wealthy and important men who served as trustees were: John Armstrong, Maysville; Rev. George C. Light, Frankfort; Gen. John Payne, who entertained William Henry Harrison at his home on Riverside Drive; Arthur Thome, Augusta; George Doniphan, Augusta; Squire G. Shropshire, Augusta; Gideon Minor, Clermont County, Ohio; Rev. James Savage, Ger- mantown, Kentucky; Samuel Lewis, Cincinnati, Ohio; Rev. Oliver M. Spen- cer, Cincinnati, Ohio, a Methodist minister who served in the Ohio Militia, was President of the American Bible Society, a famous writer, and a civic and religious leader in the Cincinnati region; Rev. John Meek, West Union, Ohio; Francis Landrum, Augusta; John Todd, Augusta; Dr. George W. Mackey, Augusta; Alfred Powell, Augusta; Marshall Key, Washington, Kentucky; Rev. Peter Acies, Louisville, Kentucky; Thomas Ingles, Sec- retary, Augusta; Hon. John M'Lean, Ohio; Rev. James B. Finley, Ohio; Joseph T. M'Kibben, Augusta; Rev. Francis A. Savage, Minerva, Kentucky; John Mears, Augusta; William Buckner, Georgetown, Ohio; Dr. John F. Tomlinson, Augusta; William C. Marshall, Augusta; Thomas Myers, Au- gusta; Vachel Weldon, Jr., Augusta; Joseph Schoolfield, Augusta; John M'Dowell, Portsmouth, Ohio; Nicholas W. Thomas, Cincinnati, Ohio; John McCleary; George Doniphan of Augusta; Josiah Lawrence; Johnson Brad- ford of Augusta; John O. T. Hawkins, and Thomas D. Carneal of Cincinnati. With a faculty of such eminence and trustees of wealth and influence it was only natural that the student body of the College should be recruited from the most prominent families of Methodists in the United States, and that others should seek this college for the education of their sons. And this accounts for the number of graduates and students who added to the intellectual life and progress of these early days. Numbered among its alumni were: Dr. Randolph Sinks Foster, son of Israel and Polly Kain Foster, who became President of Northwestern Uni- versity, later, pastor of St. Paul's Church, New York City, and the second President of Drew Theological Seminary; Dr. John W. Miley, a member of the faculty of Drew Theological Seminary; John Gregg Fee, who cham- Augusta College 29 pioned the antislavery cause and who with Cassius M. Clay founded Berea College. William S. Groesbeck, internationally-known financier of Cincinnati; Gen. Durbin Ward, born in Augusta, a Union officer who lost an arm at Chickamauga and for his gallantry won a high honor. He became a United States District Attorney and served in the Ohio legislature. Dr. William H. Taylor was in the College at its closing. He had gradu- ated from Ohio Wesleyan and from Jefferson Medical College and with Dr. T. T. Bradford, assisted the famous Kentucky surgeon, Dr. Joshua T. Bradford, of Augusta, in his skilled surgery. Benjamin F. Power, who helped to establish the tobacco markets in Cincinnati, then the second largest in the world, and who was active in making Augusta a leader in the prizing and shipping of tobacco which was the wealth of so many prominent Augusta families. The leaders were James A. Powers, F. L. Powers, P. B. Powers, B. S. Rankins, R. P. Hamilton, T. S. Hamilton, William Allen, T. H. Armstrong, James W. Jennings, C. E. Robertson, Thomas Weldon, Reynolds Hook, and J. D. McKibben. Other prominent alumni were: Joseph Longworth of Cincinnati, whose grandson, Nicholas Longworth, was Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, and whose granddaughter was Clara Longworth, the Countess de Chambrun. Thomas H. Whetstone of Cincinnati, who was the first President of the Union Literary Society. William P. F. Hulbert, a successful real estate and business man of Cincinnati whose grandson, Hulbert Taft, is one of Cincinnati's most prom- inent men. William Hulbert's daughter married Peter R. Taft, a brother of President William Howard Taft. William H. Wadsworth of Maysville, Kentucky, a lawyer and member of the Congress of the United States. Thornton F. Marshall of Augusta, a lawyer of distinction and member of the Senate of Kentucky. Although a Democrat, he cast the deciding vote that kept Kentucky in the Union. John A. Boude of Augusta, a well-known lawyer and judge. J. B. Clark of Brooksville, Kentucky, a lawyer and United States Con- gressman. Dr. Philip B. Gatch of Ohio, son of the noted pioneer Methodist preach- er, Rev. Philip Gatch. General Alexander William Doniphan, born in Mason County, Ken- tucky. At the age of nine years he was placed by his widowed mother under the guardianship of his elder brother, George Doniphan, of Augusta, "to whose care and kind attention he acknowledges himself indebted for all his attainments." He graduated with high honors from the Augusta College in 1827 in the 19th year of his age and was licensed to practice law 30 Augusta College in 1829, having read law in the office of Hon. Martin Marshall of Augusta. He served as member of the peace conference (1861) Washington, D. C; member of Missouri Legislature several terms, and was a hero of the Mexican War. 1 Major John W. Breathitt, Hopkinsville, Kentucky, a prominent lawyer and county judge, was a nephew of Governor John Breathitt of Kentucky. Silas Field, of Missouri, a brother of Judge Emmett Field, of Louisville, Kentucky, whose father, Larkin Field, was an eminent lawyer. His cousin, Curtis Field, of Richmond, Kentucky, also was an alumnus. These men were descendants of a brother of the progenitor of the famous Field family which included Stephen Field of the Supreme Court of the United States and Cyrus Field who laid the Atlantic Cable. Judge Joseph Doniphan, who studied law in Martin Marshall's office and served in the Legislature of Kentucky and as a circuit judge. Professor J. McDowell Matthews of Pisgah, Woodford County, Ken- tucky. The degree of A.M. was conferred on him by the Augusta College. Minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Virginia; first President of Hillsboro, Ohio, Female College, and nephew of General Joseph McDowell. James Armstrong, a merchant and philanthropist, whose grandson, Stuart Walker, born in Augusta, won histrionic fame with his organization, the Stuart Walker Players of Cincinnati, Indianapolis and Hollywood. Dr. Joshua T. Bradford, one of the eminent physicians and surgeons of Kentucky, was born in Augusta. He was educated at the Augusta College and was graduated from the famous medical department of Transylvania University. After completing his medical studies at Philadelphia, he re- turned to Augusta to become a celebrated specialist in ovarian tumor and bone surgery. He was senior Vice-President of the "Kentucky Medical Society" in 1856, and was a delegate to the National Medical Association, Washington City, in 1859. "As a surgeon he ranked with Gross, McDowell and Dudley." 2 A former major in the United States Army, he commanded the Home Guard at the Battle of Augusta. Judge George Huston, Union County, Kentucky, author of Memories of Eighty Years, in which he tells of his student days at the Augusta College and of his experiences during the Civil War. He was a Harvard graduate. Robert White McFarland, professor of mathematics, and afterwards President of Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Nicholas B. T. Marshall, a graduate of the class of 1829. He was an 1 John T. Hughes, Doniphan's Expedition, J. A. and U. P. James, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1848, pp. 14-15. 2 Kentucky. A History of the State, W. H. Perrin, J. H. Battle, and G. C. Kniffin. F. A. Battey & Company, Louisville, Chicago: 1888, p. 561. Augusta College 31 eminent physician and a member of the faculty of the Ohio Medical College at Cincinnati. Gen. William Preston, grandson of John Preston of Virginia, was edu- cated at Augusta College. He served in the Mexican War, in the United States Congress, as Minister to Spain in 1858, and as Brigadier General in the Confederate Army under Gen. A. S. Johnson, who was his brother- in-law. Judge George N. Brown, born 1822, Huntington, West Virginia, edu- cated at Augusta College, went to Pikeville and was interested in the Big Sandy Improvement and Development project. Robert J. Poulson, son of Major Poulson, represented his county in the Legislature of Virginia. Lewis Van Antwerp, who was prominent in the firm of Van Antwerp, Bragg & Company, book publishers in Cincinnati. Charles Grosvenor, a distinguished congressman from Ohio for several years, was a graduate of the Augusta College. Captain A. B. French, noted river showman, owner of the showboat, "New Sensation," was a student of the Augusta College. Reverend John B. Merwin, D.D., who was a minister in the New York East Conference. Dr. William H. McDowell, M.D., one of the most loved physicians of Portsmouth, Ohio. During his funeral every business house in the city of Portsmouth was closed. Milton E. and Austin M. Clark, brothers, of Brown County, Ohio, originators of the Clark and Gruber Mint at Denver, Colorado. The Hall brothers: Calvin D., Alfred J., William C. and Thomas J., Jr., of Pendleton County who joined the Confederate Army. William Paxton, a lawyer, who studied law in Martin Marshall's office and was the author of "The Marshall Family." There were two main literary societies, the Union and the Jefferson, and they played a large part in student activities. In addition to the regular order of business, the procedure of weekly meetings called for "Speakers of the first class, Speakers of the second class, Writers of the first class, Writers of the second class, Anonymous compo- sitions," and the debate was then in order. There were regularly appointed debating teams and any failure to produce any of the assignments twice in succession drew a fine. They had their society libraries and there was also available to mem- bers the 2500 volume library of the college for reading and research. A wide range of subjects was discussed and these touched on many themes in the gamut of human emotions. And this may account for the 32 Augusta College large number of theologians, teachers and lawyers whose names are to be found in the alumni lists of the college. In the roster of the Union and Jefferson Literary Societies will, no doubt, be found many noted men. UNION LITERARY SOCIETY— B. F. Ankeny, Illinois; William Adair, Tuscumbia, Alabama; J. S. All- breck; W. W. Anderson, Augusta; Prince Bennett, Michigan; Karl H. Brooks; J. E. Broadwell of Cyn- thiana, Ky.; F. C. Brooks, Michigan; Foster H. Blades, Shelby City, Ken- tucky; J. H. Banks, New York City; L. H. Berry, Newport, Kentucky; J. H. Brown, Brownsville, Virginia; J. C. Bland, Vicksburg, Mississippi; Joseph Black, Ohio; E. Bettas, New Carthage, La.; D. DuBose, Richardson, Louisiana; William Buckner, Georgetown, Ohio; Duval Payne Boude, Au- gusta; John W. Breathitt, Hopkinsville, Kentucky; Granville Barrere, New Market, Highland County, Ohio; Judge John Boude, Augusta; John Bonton, Brownsville, Virginia; Sam C. Curren, Claysville, Kentucky; M. B. Cotton; F. L. Cleveland, Augusta, Kentucky; A. M. Clark, Brown County, Ohio; M. E. Clark, Brown County, Ohio; G. P. Clark, Augusta; J. B. Collins, Texas; J. W. Cotton, Memphis, Tenn.; J. T. Cochrain, Vicksburg, Mississippi; George Cassiday, Zanesville, Ohio; Samuel Carson, Shelby County, Kentucky; Thomas R. Colson, Rushville, Ohio; William A. Collard, Augusta; L. A. W. Chalfant, Felicity, Ohio; A. B. Cook, Vicksburg, Mississippi; David Chiles, Minerva, Kentucky; W. H. Cougill, Clark County, Maine; Dr. Ruben H. Carnal, Alexandria, Lou- isiana; J. B. Cotton, Alexandria, Louisiana; William Dacey, Indiana; M. F. Damarat, Portsmouth, Ohio; Abraham Diltz, Augusta; G. F. Duke, Ken- escha Salines, Virginia; W. A. Doniphan, Augusta; Henry Edmondson, Scott County, Kentucky; J. W. Ellington, Greenup City, Kentucky; W. R. Elliott, Franklin, Louisiana; William H. Edwards, Liberty Hall, Kentucky; James B. Fetstone, Mayslick, Kentucky; R. Folkes, Vicksburg, Mississippi; Curtis Field, Richmond, Kentucky; O. H. Field, Missouri; Silas H. Field, Missouri; Benjamin F. Fox, Natchez, Mississippi; George Grafton, Pine Ridge, Mississippi; William S. Gordy, Louisiana; A. Goddard, Kentucky; E. P. Gains, Warrenton, Mississippi; O. Griffin, Cincinnati; Henry V. Gissan, Augusta; G. W. Groves, Carthage, Louisiana; William Gibbons, Augusta, Kentucky; William S. Gum, Vicksburg, Mis- sissippi; W. A. Harris, LaGrange, Tennessee; Thomas Howell, Augusta; Edward Howell, Maine; Elijah Howell; Jas. Humphrey, Port Gibson, Mississippi; E. W. Hamilton, Augusta; Dana Hubs, Lawrenceburg, Indiana; E. James, Louisiana; Francis Jordon, Pennsylvania; John R. Keith, Augusta; F. D. King, New York, N. Y.; F. E. King, New York, N. Y.; F. P. King, New York; 'Echo Hall," Dormitory of the First Established Methodist College in the World. Frankfort Street to } (T olici)ii(.r - A m] U6t ir /•)' (: (U-AIrlTTEM.. '<• //' /// . '//f ^//<- // /&t /t/u/i >////,///!/ ■ ///////// y///l/l///////t - - . ,, //l/l// /l//,.tll///l r/l/t /r?t //w. i //i /t. >/i//t /// r/t/i/i//> 1/ /,/'/ /// ///ft f////r/.i //////////- /////////////•//////' /■/ //r//t//r//.i /ft/t'/l ■//r/f/r //////////// i/i/ ///////// //t ,//////, /// A/ ///v> /'/ ''//"■> Vf////"M /wM/Uf/t //''/& /Mfr/ t/t.i//// //.if///// ///, .////. , S,//r//// ,./•■ / ■'•- <AS,j', fv,/'<'.i. <■ ' • ■■ .'f/ ■:■/•) I ^ ^ Diploma of Jacob Best, Augusta College, 1833 '^••/a/.r/ ^MSPwH^s**'*-^. The Home of Rev. Joseph S. Tomlinson, D.D., President of Augusta College, where Mrs. Foster, Henrietta and Stephen made a visit of three weeks in May, 1833 The B. F. Power Home on Elizabeth Street Augusta College 33 I. W. King; John H. Locke, Louisville, Kentucky; E. M. Lane, Vicksburg, Mississippi; I. Locke, Louisville, Kentucky; Henry Lackie, Alexandria, Louisiana; H. M. Linney, Harrodsburg, Kentucky; G. W. Leinn, Baltimore, Maryland; Alfred Murray, Bracken County, Kentucky; Alfred I. N. Myers, Au- gusta; M. C. Martin, Alexandria, Louisiana; W. M. Matthews, Natchez, Mississippi; W. H. Mackie, Augusta; Thomas Morton, Mason County, Ken- tucky; William McDowell, Portsmouth, Ohio; Josiah M. McKay, Ports- mouth, Ohio; H. Moore, Pittsburg, Mississippi; John McConthy, Trimble City, Kentucky; John Muing, Bracken County, Kentucky; William C. Mil- ler, Millersburg, Kentucky; James McNeal, Grand Gulf, Louisiana; George Marshall, Augusta, Kentucky; C. W. Murphy; James L. Nash, Louisiana; W. Nottingham, Florida; F. Nash, Attakapas, Louisiana; G. M. Nash, Jefferson City, Mississippi; John W. Ovny, Balti- more, Maryland; Will W. Orr, Augusta; William D. Penyton, Selamena City, Tennessee; W. R. Pierce, Poplar Plains, Kentucky; A. Bruce Porter, Kentucky; J. L. Pogeke, Naucarthaga, Louisiana; W. C. Purer, New Car- thage, Louisiana; Elijah C. Phister, Maysville, Kentucky; B. W. Payne, Augusta; Thomas Powers, Augusta; L. Price, Lexington, Kentucky; B. F. Power, Augusta; John H. Quinn, Hillsboro, Ohio; O. P. Raynolds, Kentucky; Samuel H. Rehy, Washington, S. C; William Russel, Wilmington, Ohio; E. W. Rob- ertson, Plaquemine, Louisiana; D. L. Ryan, Mercer City, Kentucky; Walter Ring, Augusta, Kentucky; William J. Rankins, Augusta, Kentucky; Job B. Ranels, Franklin, Louisiana; Henry A. Shaefer, Port Gibson, Mississippi; John Stock well, Kentucky; Milton C. Smith, Mason City, Kentucky; W. M. Soule, Lebanon, Ohio; Stephen P. Shaifer, Port Clinton, Mississippi; E. W. Smith, New Carthage, Louisiana; John K. Smith, Attakapas, Louisiana; Dr. C. S. Savage, M.D., Bracken County, Kentucky; S. H. Sisson, Augusta, Kentucky; F. M. Sell; C. O. Scott, Alexandria, Louisiana; William Salter; Richard A. Stone, War- ren, Mississippi; Jonathan Short, Kentucky; Benjamin Taylor, Augusta; L. P. Thomas, Augusta; John G. Tomlin- son, Augusta; C. C. Tomlinson, Harrodsburg, Kentucky; W. C. Tomlinson, Augusta, Kentucky; Dr. W. H. Taylor, Augusta; David Thomas, Augusta, Kentucky; Osuet H. Vick, Vicksburg, Mississippi; A. Vandorn, Port Gibson, Mississippi; William Watson, Hazen, Mason County, Kentucky; William D. Williams, Clarksburg, Virginia; W. H. Wadsworth, Maysville, Kentucky; W. T. Walker, Fleming County, Kentucky; Thomas J. Wilson, West Felici- ana, Louisiana. 34 Augusta College JEFFERSON LITERARY SOCIETY— Partial List Ransom Brooks, Cincinnati, Ohio; John Bradshaw, Shelby ville, Ken- tucky; Aaron Biddison; W. R. Brown; G. Grading; Fredrick P. Clay, Frank- fort, Kentucky; William Campbell, Cynthiana, Kentucky; James R. Clark, Brown County, Ohio; Stephen Cobb, West Feliciana, Louisiana; John W. Cassett; Thomas Dobyns, Mason County, Kentucky; Joseph L. David, But- ler County, Ohio; William Dowsing, Columbus, Mississippi; Charles Dyas; Daniel Evans; L. S. Espy; Jeremiah H. Foster; D. Florey; William S. Groes- beck, Cincinnati, Ohio; S. S. Gray; Prof. E. W. Gray; Jesse Garlinghouse, Augusta; S. P. Hall; G. M. Hardwick, Tuscaloosa, Louisiana; John Height; W. E. Hinze; William F. Jones; Philip Kennedy; Josiah Lamborn; Robert Loving, Nelson County, Virginia; Wm. B. Lakin; Jesse Lock; Edward Love; Stephen Lock; W. T. Leener; S. L. Leanord; Alex Mclntyre; A. L. C. Magruder, Jefferson County, Mississippi; Samuel Melvin, Accomac County, Virginia; H. McCasland; B. F. Morris; Doctor A. H. Pollock, M.D., Bracken County, Kentucky; David Portes; Addison Reese, Cynthiana, Kentucky; John Rees, Georgetown, Ohio; John Roszell; George W. Robinson; J. W. Ricks; Augustus W. Ruter, Augusta, Kentucky; Paul Riggs; Alexander D. Spencer, Cincinnati, Ohio; Thomas Simpson, Adams County, Ohio; W. H. Stewart, Brown County, Ohio; Sam- uel C. Spencer, Cincinnati, Ohio; Thos. Jefferson Nicholas Simmons; J. Sni- der; W. L. S. Simmons; I. R. Starkey; P. S. Spawling; William G. Starky; L. F. Vandene; Stephen Wood, Adams County, Mississippi; Isaac Newton Williams; William R. White and Henry C. Whitney. OTHER STUDENTS— Partial List Robert Aldredge, Tuscumbia, Alabama; James Armstrong, Augusta; Richard H. Anderson, Green County, Kentucky; Edward L. Anderson, Green County, Kentucky; Joseph H. Anderson, Vicksburg, Mississippi; William J. Anderson, Vicksburg, Mississippi; William Bailie; J. H. Bishop; A. Bascom; I. S. A. Bradshaw; R. R. Bailie, Barker; Jacob Best, Bracken County, Kentucky; D. H. Bishop; Nelson Barrere, New Market, Highland County, Ohio; Spencer J. Ball, Mason County, Kentucky; William I. T. Buckner, Augusta, Kentucky; John T. Bate, Jefferson County, Kentucky; Erasmus D. Beach, Hamilton, Ohio; Thomas Carter, Clinton, Louisiana; Charles Cabell; John L. Carey, Bridgenville, Delaware; Joseph Chambers, Washington, Mason County, Kentucky; Joshua A. Clark, Hayswood Coun- ty, Tennessee; William P. Cook, Warren County, Kentucky; L. A. Clinton, Louisiana; Granville L. Cookrill, Tuscumbia, Louisiana; Wallers S. Chew, West Feliciana, Louisiana; Philemon L. Chew, West Feliciana, Louisiana; George H. R. Clark, St. Louis, Missouri; John Cochran, Brown County, Ohio; Alexander C. Crawford, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Nailor; Augusta College 35 Adam C. Deem; I. C. Damron; Robert V. Davis, West Feliciana, Lou- isiana; Robert B. Ellis, Todd County, Kentucky; Collins Elliott, Butler County, Ohio; Fredrick Farrer, Washington, Mississippi; Thomas P. Farrer, Washington, Mississippi; Asa Foster, Bourbon County, Kentucky; Orvil Grant; Abner Green, Jefferson County, Mississippi; W. P. Grayson; William W. N. Gibson, Warren County, Mississippi; H. S. Garland; Davis S. Goodloe, Tuscumbia, Alabama; Henry E. Gill, Mason County, Kentucky; Gordon R. Gilmore, Cincinnati, Ohio; George J. Griffin, Hinds County, Mississippi; John S. Griffin, Jefferson County, Kentucky. George H. Harrison, Warren County, Ohio; Thomas L. Haile, St. Fran- cisville, Louisiana; Matthew Hopple, Cincinnati, Ohio; James B. Hinde, Ur- bana, Ohio; Augustus F. Holton, Augusta, Kentucky; William P. F. Hulbert, Cincinnati, Ohio; William P. Hamilton; J. W. Harmon, Augusta, Kentucky; J. B. Jackson; William Jones; Charles A. Jones, Cincinnati, Ohio; William Johnson, Humpsted County, Arkansas Territory; Moses H. Keener, Ridge- ville, Ohio; Charles R. Kincheloe, Nelson County, Kentucky; Rodney King, Adams County, Mississippi; Richard E. King, Adams County, Mississippi; William B. Lewis, St. Landry, Louisiana; James Leigh, Perquimans County, North Carolina; Edward Lawrence, Cincinnati, Ohio; Preston Lodwick, Cincinnati, Ohio; John Long, St. Francisville, Louisiana; George Long, St. Francisville, Louisiana; G. W. Leinn, Baltimore, Maryland; Sidney H. Monroe, Falmouth, Kentucky; Nicholas B. T. Marshall, Au- gusta, Kentucky; Thomas A. Marshall, Augusta, Kentucky; William B. Magruder, Fluvanna County, Virginia; Hillary Magruder, Fluvanna Coun- ty, Virginia; Thomas G. Mclntyre, Franklin County, Mississippi; William S. Meek, Tuscaloosa, Alabama; Thomas W. Miller, Scioto County, Ohio; Daniel B. Nailer, Vicksburg, Mississippi; Stephen E. Nash, Monroe County, Mississippi; Samuel Nixon, Loudoun County, Virginia; John H. Oglesby, Madison, Indiana; George W. Dutten, Augusta, Kentucky; John W. Pery- man; Charles M. Phillips; Baltimore, Maryland; William Preston, Louis- ville, Kentucky; Henry B. Price, Washington, Mississippi; J. C. Richey; Augustus Robbins, Augusta, Kentucky; Sam'l Roszell; John R. Power, Augusta; Henry L. Rucker, Augusta, Kentucky; Pascal F. Right, Amelia County, Virginia; Stephen S. Rossel, Washington City; William H. Rob- ertson, Mason County, Kentucky; John Rees, Georgetown, Ohio; Charles Rabb, Natchez, Mississippi; Luke Robinson, Cambridge, Maryland; Philan- der S. Ruter, Augusta, Kentucky; James Ryan; Chancy B. Shepherd, Ma- tthews County, Virginia; Samuel R. Shakelford, Amite County, Mississippi; William B. Smith, Cincinnati, Ohio; Joseph W. Sessions, Adams County, Mississippi; Joseph J. B. Southall, Murfreesboro, North Carolina; Samuel H. Smith, Cincinnati, Ohio; Henry Smith, St. Louis, Missouri; Samuel A. 36 Augusta College Spencer, Cincinnati, Ohio; Francis W. Spencer, Cincinnati, Ohio; Lucien D. Stockton, Flemingsburg, Kentucky; William Schoolfield, Augusta, Kentucky; Baldwin H. Spiker, Winches- ter, Tennessee; Caleb L. Swayze, St. Landry, Louisiana; David M. Stiles, Claibourn County, Mississippi; William M. Stiles, Claibourn County, Mis- sissippi; Glenn G. Stoudemire, Louisville, Alabama; Joseph P. Sanford, Baltimore, Maryland; James A. Thome, Augusta, Kentucky; John H. Thomas, Wilkinson County, Mississippi; Charles W. Thorp, Cincinnati, Ohio; James L. Thorp, Cincinnati, Ohio; George Tribbey, Augusta, Ken- tucky; John Vincent; Richard A. Whetstone, Cincinnati, Ohio; Benjamin Whiteman, Green County, Ohio; Stephen T. Wood, Adams County, Mississippi; Peter G. Winn, Claysville, Kentucky; William Wayland, Batavia, Ohio; George R. Waters, Bracken County, Kentucky; William Watts, Maysville, Kentucky; Alexander H. Whitney, Jefferson County, Mississippi; Silas Woods, Leb- anon, Ohio; Charles W. Walden, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1 The college papers of the literary societies were: The Jefferson Chron- icle, Friday Courier, and The Evening Herald. These men gave special lectures before the Literary Societies: Rev. Dr. Tefft; Judge McLean; Dr. Thompson; Rev. W. I. Fee of Ohio; Dr. McCullom, who often "appeared in the hall" and was always "invited into the room" to give an interesting biological lecture. Dr. Charles Caldwell, M.D., a professor in the famous Medical Depart- ment of Transylvania University. He was also a writer and delivered several lectures to the Jefferson Society of the Augusta College. Dr. Cald- well had been made an honorary member of this Society, July 21, 1848. Spread on the minutes of the October 27, 1848 meeting of the Society is this information: "A motion made and carried to instruct the treasurer to send twenty five dollars to Dr. Caldwell to pay in part for the publication of his address. A note being read from Samuel Garrett, book merchant at Cin- cinnati, stating that he would take some 25 copies of said address and do the best he could with [them]." JEFFERSON SOCIETY: March 23rd, 1832. "Motion was then made to appoint five to meet a committee from the Union Society to request the Hon. Henry Clay to address the two societies on the next commencement." The records show that the faculty of the College, including Dr. Ruter, were honorary members of the societies and took part in the debates. In the societies quills were used for pens and fat was preferred to oil in lamps. "On Jan. 14th the treasurer was instructed to purchase a pair of snuffers." 1 Minutes of the Union and Jefferson Literary Societies. Original in possession of the author. Augusta College 37 "The days of College prosperity were the days of Augusta's renown and greatest prosperity." 1 "It was a center on which all eyes from all parts of North and South, East and West looked with an interest; for there were congregated some of the great lights of the church as scholars, divines and orators, and they were going out, the educated sons of the church, to make their impress upon society in after years." 2 The homes and the hearts of this cultured little town were opened to the students, and the gaiety of many social events in these lovely old homes can be visualized. The college building on Bracken Street, with its colonial stairway, its large stately rooms, no doubt, was the scene of many brilliant social events. Yet the seriousness and close comradeship that abounds in colleges of this type (for it was typical of the early English schools) are apparent from this one incident of a Cincinnati boy. "Meeting Extraordinary June 9th., 1831" "By order of the President the Society met in order to consult what would be the most suitable manner of manifesting their sorrow and regret for the demise of one of their honored and respected members, Mr. Ramson Brooks, one whose social virtues, moral conduct, and accomplished talents entitle his memory to be perpetuated in the hearts of his fellow members and deeply impressed on their fondest recollections. After the president had stated the object of the meeting the following resolution was intro- duced by Mr. Portis and immediately adopted by the House: 'Resolved unanimously, that the members of the Jeff. Society, in commemoration of their departed friend and fellow member R. Brooks, wear crape on their left arms for thirty days.' Mr. Rozel was appointed to inform by letter, the Rev. Brooks of the proceedings of this society with respect to his son. Mr. Melvin was selected by the House to purchase and distribute the crape necessary for each member. There being no other business the House was adjourned. "Sam'l Smith, President "W. H. Stewart, Secretary" Strict discipline was required, in these early days, and the right of free speech was seemingly denied — as witnessed in the following trial of Josiah Lamborn: "August 5th 1829— Jefferson Society The Society met persuant to adjournment — the role being called, the Prosecutor of the Society arraigned before the members, Josiah Lamborn 1 J. W. Cunningham — Newport, Kentucky, 1869. 2 Ibid. 38 Augusta College for certain offences against the dignity of the Society contained in the fol- lowing prosecution, (viz) Jefferson Society Augusta College Whereas it hath been represented to us by certain individuals, belonging to this Jefferson Society, that Josiah Lamborn, a member of the said Society, hath wilfully and without any regard for the dignity of this Society, ex- pressed himself in a manner degrading to the standing and contrary to the laws laid down in the constitution of said Society. Therefore I Thos P. Haille, by the powers invested in me, as Prosecutor in behalf of the Society aforesaid and agreeable to the Constitution in such cases made and provided do hereby arraign before the members of this Society the said Josiah Lamborn to answer to the charges preferred against him in this Endictment Witness Thos G. M'Intyre President of the Jefferson Society, the 5th day of August Eighteen hundred and twenty nine. Thos P Haille Prosecutor After which the Society submitted to a hearing of the trial Thos P. Haille Pros, and Addison Rees in behalf of the Society — A. O. Spencer and Ransom Brooks for Deft — Several witnesses being examined and the counsel on each side having finished pleading, The Society decided the offender (on refusing to make acknowledgements) should be suspended from all privi- leges of the Society for the Term of one month from the commencement of the next session. The Society then appointed a Committee to inform the Faculty that it would submit to any arrangement the Faculty might think proper to make with respect to marching at the Commencement, after which the Society adjourned. Alfred H Pollock Secty." There is no record to show that Josiah Lamborn ever made acknowl- edgment of this accusation but the records do show that he was taken back into the full fellowship of the Society and was appointed to make the next Fourth of July address. Perhaps a more flagrant crime (or was it a crime?), was committed on July 12th, 1831. The usual "Meeting Extraordinary" was called to take into consideration the conduct of a student "who was cited by the Censor before this Society (Jefferson) to answer to the following charges, Viz. for stealing 1 silk Vest, 1 pair Pantaloons, a five dollar bill, (maybe in the pantaloons) , a Book of Compositions, other Books and other articles of Augusta College 39 Sundry Kinds." The accused refused to be present, and "the Society, upon due consideration of the subject; being thoroughly convinced of the justice of the charges," 1 proceeded, summarily, to expel him, and to notify the faculty of his expulsion. This smacks of the predilection of some college boys to borrow (with- out the consent of the owner), such articles, when they have a special date, and the faculty knowing the ways of these boys and with the return, perhaps, of the articles of sundry kinds, may have dismissed these charges with a severe reprimand. Yet his name does not appear, afterwards, on the available records. The Board of Trustees had drawn up strict by-laws and every student was required to sign a pledge to obey them. Yet, in spite of this, there were a few lapses in behavior. Some of these laws were: "The Principal in the Primary Department depends for his compen- sation on the fees of his pupils; which he himself is to collect. The year is divided into quarters, and the price of tuition two dollars per quarter. Four weeks vacation are allowed during the year; to be dated and distrib- uted by the Faculty and the Principal." "This school, in summer, opens at eight, and closes at five; and in winter, opens at half past eight, and closes at four; both seasons having a daily intermission from noon till two." "Admittance into the Freshman class, can only be procured, by passing an examination before the Faculty in the preparatory studies, possessing a good moral character, and paying the advance dues." "Students who have accomplished our college course, and paid all dues, are eligible candidates for the first degree, or Bachelor of Arts; and their title is decided, after examination in literature and science, and scrutiny of moral character, by recommendation of the Faculty, and vote of the Board. Before the degree be publicly conferred, every candidate must per- form the assigned commencement exercise." "Alumni of Augusta College, who, after leaving, continue the culti- vation of letters, or the sciences, or enter some of the learned professions, and maintain an irreproachable character, shall, in three years after com- mencing A.B., be permitted, by the same formalities, to proceed Master of Arts. In no case shall any degree be granted, as a matter of course." "Honorary testimonials, decorated with the seal of the College, are to be adjudged at the annual examinations to such students as distinguish themselves." "No hallooing, loud talking, whistling, jumping, or other disturbing act, shall be permitted in the buildings of the College, or on the college 1 Minutes — Jefferson Literary Society. 40 Augusta College grounds during recitation hours; and all tumultous or indecent noises, disturbing the town, or any of its inhabitants; making bonfires, playing off fireworks, or in any way assisting in such disorders, are utterly disallowed." "The students of Augusta College are required to attend public wor- ship in Augusta, every Sabbath morning; and, as far as practicable, in the evening; and, at all hours and places, on the Sabbath, to conduct them- selves with becoming sobriety and strict decorum." "All students of Augusta are expected to exhibit, in demeanor, speech, and action, all those principles and sentiments, which characterize the genuine gentleman; namely, the man of purity, dignity, and benevolence." "The punishments denounced, as well as the conduct prescribed, are applicable to the Preparatory Department. The students in this school are liable to the punishment of the rod, when judged indispensable." PLEDGE "We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, being ad- mitted students of Augusta College, having read with at- tention the By-Laws of said College, do hereby Declare upon our Honor, that we cordially acquiesce in these laws and will constantly obey them: — And, that we will not be guilty of profane cursing and swearing, card-playing, any gaming at which money or property may be hazarded, in- decent language, or disrespectful conduct towards the col- lege officers or instructors; and, that without the special leave of a professor, parent, or guardian, we will not visit, for any purpose whatever, any coffeehouse, grocery, or house of similar kind, where spirituous liquors are sold." "If the Trustees, or officers of the College, on any occasion, shall desire to consult a book in the library, without taking it from the room, it shall be the duty of the Librarian to attend them for that purpose." "No book shall be permitted to be carried more than a mile from the College." "All the students, except those whose parents or legal guardians reside in Augusta, are required to keep, in books provided for the purpose, reg- ular and accurate accounts of their receipts and expenditures of money. These books are submitted for examination, at the close of each session, to a committee consisting of the President of the College and two Trustees, accompanied by a written declaration that the accounts they contain are full and faithful." "It is earnestly recommended, that all monies designed for the college expenses of the students, be deposited by their friends in the hands of some Doorway to "Piedmont", the Home of Dr. Joshua T. Bradford The College Building on Bracken Street where Hanson Penn Diltz wrote "Hollow Bracken" Marshall-Bradford Home on Riverside Drive The Doniphan-Felix Home on Fourth Street Augusta College 41 person in Augusta, as a college Guardian, or Agent; and that students may not have the control of considerable sums of money, or be allowed a too liberal supply of pocket-money." 1 "The course of instruction in the Moral Department will be conducted, alternately, by Recitation and Lecture; that the peculiar advantage result- ing from each of these modes of communication may be fully realized by the student. "During the Winter Session, an extended Course of Lectures on Chem- istry will be delivered by the President, accompanied with numerous appropriate experiments. "The services of a Teacher of Modern Languages can be procured, at any time, for such students as may wish to acquire those Languages." This is an account of the annual examinations, the commencement exercises, and a list of the faculty members for the year 1835: "The annual examination commenced in this institution in the Aca- demic Department, on Friday the 31 ult., at 9 o'clock. The business of examination was conducted alternately by Mr. Chapman, Preceptor in the Preparatory Department, and by the President, and other members of the faculty. — The course of study in this department is strictly preparatory, comprehending the usual elementary branches of an English education, thoroughly taught. Latin — Adam's Grammar — Historiae Sacrae — Viri Ro- mae — Caesar's Commentaries — Virgil's Aeneid, (6 books). Greek — An- thon's Grammar — Greek Testament — Graeca Minora. As there are two public examinations in the several departments of the college each year, the several classes at each examination, are only examined upon the studies of the preceding session, say on one half the studies of the college year. "The examination of the college classes commenced on Monday, the 3rd of August, in the department of Ancient languages, conducted by Professor McCowan, occasionally relieved by others. The writer of this article is only anxious to present the general outlines of the course of study in each de- partment, in connection with the actual examination witnessed by him, without aiming at fulness or formality of detail as furnished in the publi- cation of the College. Latin — Virgil's Aeneid, continued, — Syntax — Cicero's Select Orations — Horace — Cicero de Immortalities — Juvenal Satires — Ro- man Antiquities. Greek — Xenophon's Cyropaedia — Syntax — Craeca Ma- jora — Lingimus on the sublime — Homer's Iliad — Grecian Antiquities. He- brew — Stuart's Grammar — Wilson's Introduction — Biblia Hebraica — Gebb's Manual, Hebrew and English Lexicon. — On Tuesday morning, at 9 o'clock, the examination commenced in the mathematical Department, including natural philosophy and astronomy. Professor Tomlinson examined eight classes successively during the day. The Freshman class in Geometry — 1 By-Laws, Augusta College, 1837 42 Augusta College Playfair. In Algebra — Day. In Ancient History, with Chronology and Geography — Whelply. In Plane Trigonometry — Gibson. The Sophomore class — mensuration of superfices and solids — Keith on the Globes. The Junior class in surveying, with special reference to both theory and practice — Gibson — and the Senior class in Astronomy. The principal additional studies in this department, such as Logarithms — mensuration of heights and distances — Gibson. Navigation — Day. Spherical Trigonometry — Play- fair. Conic Sections — Simpson. Differential Calculus — Vince, together with an illustration of principles, by an appeal to suitable apparatus, with which the department is furnished, could only be glanced at en passant. On Wednesday, the 5th, at the usual hour the examination commenced in the department of moral science. The first hour was devoted to Intel- lectual Philosophy. The science was denned and discriminated so as to fix and settle its limits — the definite objects of the science were considered, together with the most approved method of inquiry applicable to the study. A text book is used, and nothing in it allowed to escape the notice of the student, yet it is used as a basis of study only, and not appealed to as authority. The usual method of recitation and drill are thoroughly plied, and concise, perspicuous lecture accompanies each recitation throughout the entire course, the object of which is, to fix attention upon what may be considered the demonstrated principles of the science, as found in Locke, Reid, Stewart, Brown, and others, without encumbering the subject with opinions and conjectures at present exploded, or at best of questionable value. A class was next examined in Moral Philosophy, and the plan of the instructor was the same as in the preceding study, carefully distin- guishing the latter as a science, from the former, and pointing out its peculiar uses and appropriate applications. A class was then examined in Political Economy. Say, it seems, is adopted as a nominal guide, drawing liberally at the same time upon Smith, Ricardo, Malthus, Chalmers, Phil- lips and others. Professor Bascom next examined a class in Natural The- ology. The limits of the science were settled — the nature of the evidence to which it appeals was critically examined, and what is peculiar to the science as such, and its intimate connection with the interest of Chris- tianity were noticed with special care and at length. The class in Natural and Political Law was next in order, and after distinguishing and defining the subjects, in accordance with modern classification, their range and im- portance were noticed, in a way calculated to evince the importance of the one and the other. The examination of the class in Natural law was directed mainly to the sources and obligations of the science, viewed as the law of nature applied to nations, and modified and extended by conven- tional arrangement among them as contracting parties — also the gradual growth and progress of the science, from the date of the Justinian Code to the present time. The last class examined was one of Constitutional Augusta College 43 law, with special reference to the constitution and jurisprudence of the United States. On Thursday morning, Mr. Targowski examined the class in French, and exhibited specimens of the progress of his pupils in drawing. "At 12 o'clock the board of trustees met. The Reverend Professor Tomlinson was elected President of the College. The Rev. Joseph M. Trim- ble, A.M., of the Ohio Conference, was appointed Roberts Professor of Mathematics. Mr. Charles Targowski, late from Poland, and graduate of the University of Warsaw, was appointed Professor of Modern Languages and of Fine Arts. "The Rev. Jonathan Stamper, and the Rev. H. H. Kavanaugh were in attendance as a visiting committee from the Kentucky Conference; and the Rev. Leroy Swormstedt, and the Rev. Joseph M. Trimble in the same capacity from the Ohio Conference." "The exercise of commencement began at half past 8 o'clock Friday morning. A large procession was formed at the college chapel. General Payne, acting as marshal of the day, and proceeded thence to the Metho- dist church, with a fine band of music from Cincinnati. After prayers by President Tomlinson, and music, an oration on Patriotism was delivered by James Madison Jackson of Virginia. 2. an oration on the Fickleness of Fortune, by Thomas Marshall Key of Kentucky. 3. A Poem on Knowledge, by Matthew F. Hopple, of Cincinnati, Ohio. 4. an oration on the Aborigines of America, by R. A. Whetstone of Cincinnati, Ohio. 5. Valedictory Ad- dress, by Walter Taylor, of Alabama. 6. The ceremony of conferring de- grees — James M. Jackson, Virginia, Thomas M. Key, Kentucky, and Wal- ter Taylor, Alabama, received the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The degree of Master of Arts was conferred on John S. Bradshaw, Kentucky; William Campbell, Kentucky; William P. Cook, Mississippi; Joseph W. Davis, Mis- sissippi; Matthew F. Hopple, Ohio; Robert G. Loving, Virginia; John B. Merwin, New York; Charles Phillips, Mississippi; Samuel P. Smith, Ohio; Samuel A. Spencer, Ohio; L. D. Stockton, Kentucky; and R. A. Whetstone, Ohio — alumni of the college. The honorary degree of Master of Arts was conferred on the Rev. Geo. S. Holmes, of Pennsylvania; and that of Doctor of Laws, on Benjamin Watkins Leigh of Virginia. "Professor Bascom then delivered an address to the rival literary soci- ety of the college 'on the coincident claims of intellect and morals in the formation of character.' After which, the exercises were closed by a benediction. "The present organization of the Faculty announced as follows, by order of the Board of Trustees: 1. Rev. Joseph S. Tomlinson, A.M., Presi- dent and Professor of Natural Philosophy, Astronomy and Chemistry. 2. Rev. H. B. Bascom, A.M., M'Kendree Professor of Moral Science and Belles Lettres. 3. Rev. Joseph M. Trimble, A.M., Roberts Professor of Mathe- 44 Augusta College matics. 4. Rev. B. H. McCowan, A.M., Professor of Ancient Languages. 5. Charles Targowski, Professor of Modern Languages and the Fine Arts. 6. Mr. A, Chapman, Preceptor in the Preparatory Department." 1 PROFESSORSHIPS I. Professorship of Ancient Languages, including Latin, Greek, and Hebrew; Grecian and Roman Antiquities; Ancient Geography, and Biblical Literature. II. Professorship of Modern Languages, comprising French, German and Spanish. III. Professorship of Mathematics, entitled the Roberts Professorship of Mathematics; comprehending Pure Mathematics, and the application of Mathematics to Mensuration, Surveying, Navigation, Nautical Astronomy, Geography, and Civil Engineering. IV. Professorship of Natural Science, including Natural Philosophy, As- tronomy, and Chemistry. V. Professorship of Moral Science, styled the M'Kendree Professorship of Moral Science; embracing Mental Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Natural Theology, Evidences of Christianity, Christian Ethics, Nat- ural and Political Law, Political Economy, and the Law of Nations. The following was the course of study in 1837: ACADEMIC DEPARTMENT English. — Grammar, Elocution, Penmanship. Mathematics, &c. — Arithmetic, Introduction to Algebra, Geography. Latin. — Adam's Grammar, Walker's Latin Reader, Eutropius Phoedrus, Caesar, Ovid, Virgil, Prosody, Exercises. Greek. — Valpy's Grammar, Gospels of Luke and John, Graeca Minora. Note. — A greater or lesser number of the Latin books is read, according to the state of the student. COLLEGIATE DEPARTMENT Freshman Class First Session English. — Syntax with Analysis, Exercises in Composition, Elocution. Latin. — Virgil reviewed and finished, Prosody, Sallust, Exercises. Greek. — Xenophon's Cyropoedia; Anabasis (Graeca Majora), Exercises. i The Commonwealth, Frankfort, Ky., Sept. 26, 1835. Augusta College 45 Mathematics. — Book-keeping (single and double entry), Plain Geometry, including six books. History. — Elements of Chronology, Ancient History, with Ancient Geog- raphy. Second Session English. — Syntax with criticism, including punctuation; composition, Elo- cution. Latin. — Cicero's Orations; Exercises. Greek. — Herodotus, Thucydides, Lysias, Isocrates, Demosthenes (Graeca Majora) ; Exercises. Mathematics. — Algebra, throughout Equations of the second degree; Geom- etry continued. History. — Modern History, with Chronology and Geography. Sophomore Class First Session English. — Elements of Composition, with Analysis; Original Composition; Declamation. Latin. — Horace; Prosody; Composition. Greek. — Xenophon's Memorabilia; Plato; Aristotle (Graeca Majora) ; Ex- ercises. Mathematics. — Algebra finished; Logarithms; Plane Trigonometry; Men- suration of Distances and Heights. History. — Greece; Grecian Antiquities. Second Session English. — Elements of Composition with Criticism; Exercises. Latin. — Livy; Cicero de Officiis; Composition. Greek. — Aristotle; Dionysius; Longinus; Odyssey (Graeca Majora) ; Exer- cises. Mathematics. — Geometry of Planes and Solids; Plane and Solid Mensura- tion; Perspective Geography, including the use of the Globes, and the construction of Maps. History. — Rome; Roman Antiquities. 46 Augusta College Junior Class First Session English. — Logic and Rhetoric; Composition; Declamation. Latin. — Tacitus; Cicero de Amicitia, &c; Translations. Greek. — Hesiod; Sophocles; Euripides, &c. (Graeca Majora). Mathematics. — Navigation; Surveying; Civil Engineering. History. — England. Second Session Moral Science. — Political Economy. English. — Composition ; Declamation. Latin. — Juvenal; Cicero de Oratore; Translations. Greek. — Homer's Iliad. Mathematics, &c. — Analytical Geometry, including Conic Sections; Spheri- cal Trigonometry; Natural Philosophy commenced; Chemistry. History. — United States, and Constitution. Senior Class First Session Moral Department. — Mental Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; Evidences of Christianity; Natural Theology. English, &c. — Logic and Rhetoric reviewed, with Elements of Criticism; Composition; Forensics. Latin. — Quintilian, former books reviewed or completed. Second Session Moral Department. — Mental Philosophy, with special reference to Analysis and Classification; Christian Ethics; Natural and Political Law; Law of Nations; General Review; Exercises. Greek. — Longinus, former authors reviewed or finished. Natural Science. — Astronomy, &c. N.B. — Such students as may desire it, will be instructed in the Hebrew, by the Professor of Languages. The Classes in Surveying and Civil Engineering, will be exercised, practically, in these branches, under the supervision of the Professor of Mathematics. Augusta College 47 Augusta College conferred the honorary degree of LL.D. on George Robertson, Chief Justice of Kentucky and one of Kentucky's most honored men. High on the hill back of Augusta, there was a very old Negro church. The darkies sang early and continued until late, and their musical, har- monious voices floated softly over the quiet of the town. Stephen Foster may have come often to visit his uncles, Dr. Joseph Tomlinson who was President of the College and Dr. John Tomlinson, a physician. He was in Augusta with his mother in 1833, at the age of six years, an impression- able age, and it can hardly be doubted that he heard many of these songs in their happier vein and was impressed by them. He was to put into song at a later time the sorrow that their voices reflected. Of his visit to Augusta in 1833, his mother wrote to her son, William B. Foster, Jr., as follows: "My dear son. It has been one week this day since I returned from a long journey. In the first place your father conducted me, with Henrietta and Stephen, on board the Napoleon and placed me under the care of Captain Stone. There were many pleasant passengers amongst the ladies. There was an old Presbyterian from your country nam'd Mrs. Boyed. We landed on the fourth night at Augusta a beautiful vil- lage on the bank of the Ohio in Kentucky where I have two brothers living very neatly. Joseph the eldest where I stayed three weeks is President of the College and a fine amiable gentlemanly man. Henrietta had a fine opportu- nity of practicing on the piano at his house. When we left Augusta my brother pay'd my passage, and put me on board the Champlain a daily packet which conveyed me to Cincinnati where I remained a week at Mr. Cassilys, on Broad Way, handsomely treated." 1 The Tomlinson family was zealously antislavery and intensely inter- ested in this controversial question. With the College, it was then a moral and not a political issue. Dr. Joseph Tomlinson was to lead Augusta into the Northern Conference, the only one in the Circuit to leave the Southern Conference. So, the slavery question must have been discussed often in the Tomlin- son homes and, as there was a daily packet from Cincinnati where Stephen Foster was living at the time, it would hardly be an exaggeration to infer 1 Original letter, owned by Mrs. Alfred C. Worneweck, Stuart, Florida, Stephen Foster's niece. 48 Augusta College that he often visited the families of his prominent relatives and heard much of the plight of the darkies of whom he was later to create a folklore of songs beloved by all the world. Henrietta Foster was afterwards the grandmother of Henrietta Cross- man, the actress, who was to make the character of "Rosalind" live in the hearts of the American people. The slavery question had long been a vital one among the student body, but at first this and related questions, though often discussed, resolved themselves into but one decision: that slavery should be abolished by gov- ernmental decree. They seemed to realize that the question was so important that it might bring about a dissolution of the government. The records show clearly this interest and concern. As early as No- vember 7, 1828, the subject for debate was: "Would it be policy in the United States to abolish slavery?" Decision in the affirmative. "Is involuntary slavery justifiable in any case?" Decided in the neg- ative. Dec. 9, 1831. "Should the United States pass a law to prohibit the extension of slav- ery?" Nov. 8, 1848. Decided in the affirmative. "Do the signs of our times portend a dissolution of our political union?" Nov. 8, 1848. Decision in the affirmative. "Would it be to the interest of the citizens of Kentucky to abolish slavery?" April 21, 1848. Decision in affirmative. "Would it be good policy in the citizens of Kentucky to abolish slav- ery?" July 14, 1848. Decided in the affirmative. High on the agenda of the debates of the societies (as now), was the question of the foreign and domestic policy of the United States: "Was it good policy in our government to repeal the tariff of 1842?" "Is it probable that a Republican form of government will become universal?" "Does party spirit tend to the promulgation of truth?" "Should the Primary branches of an English Education be made requi- site to constitute a Legal voter?" And again in a lighter vein: "Should a man ask a girl to marry him after she has refused him once?" "Is a frequent association with the refined of the other sex calculated to preserve a young man from the contamination of low pursuits?" All the members, but one, participated in this discussion and "much light was emi- nated." The censor took a "birds-eye view" of the argument and decided in the affirmative; the house concurred, on its merits. Mr. White was fined 25^. Fines of 12V2 and 25^ were frequently im* posed; it may have been a good way to raise revenue. JttirjSTA foxalj: Coixe&k 1852 - 1860 The Home of William J. Rankins and Jane Silverthorn Rankins AUGUSTA MALE and FEMALE COLLEGE 1868 - 1879 - The Cleveland-Harbeson Home on Fourth Street Augusta College 49 The first signs of disagreement came with the withdrawal of some of the faculty to take a leading part in Transylvania University in 1842. Henry Bascom of Augusta College who joined the pro-slavery cause was Transylvania's first President under the Methodist regime. The Ohio Conference continued until later, but its support was with- drawn with the establishment of Ohio Wesleysn University at Delaware in 1842. The Augusta College continued under the Kentucky Conferences until 1846 when the Northern Conference of Kentucky became its sole sponsor. Dissension among the students even yet can be noticed. The following record gives a clue to rising feelings: "June 26, 1846 "Gen. "We are sorry to find that the majority of the members of the Jefferson Literary Society have little magnanimity and we regret that we are again compelled to call upon the trustees of the Baptist Church for the use of said church. "Respect'y yours, "R. G. Stirling Set. "Union Literary Society." In the minutes of the Jefferson Literary Society, dated June, 1849, the heading is: "UNDER THE NEW ADMINISTRATION," and the closing, is P. S. "STRONG TALK OF LEAVING, CHOLERA, FEVER, RAGING, ETC., ETC." And August 24: "RESOLVED that the Secretary be in- structed to call a public meeting of the Jefferson Literary Society for the purpose of making some disposition of the property of the Society at as early a time as possible in some public journal." "B. F. Morris" "The Augusta College trustees having sold to Sarah Armstrong and mortgaged to John Armstrong the ferry rights in the town of Augusta from the Kentucky to the Ohio shore and a resale was made to [Dr.] Joshua T. Bradford, and as the Legislature at the last session repealed the charter of the Augusta College, it is recommended that a law be passed giving title to the Ferry rights to Joshua T. Bradford." "To many, paradoxically, the greatest glory of Augusta College was in its ending. It was the center of the antislavery movement in Kentucky, and the feeling against the College became so intense that the Legislature 50 Augusta College repealed its charter." 1 And this may account for the sentiment that was directed against Augusta in the Civil War that was to follow. And so came to a close an institution so well-founded and with the prospect of so glorious a future. It had lived only twenty-seven years, from 1822 to 1849, but in those years it had lived vitally and with a high purpose, and that accounts for the number of men who were attracted to it, who loomed large in the life of America. Throughout the cities of the United States and in the remote corners of the earth are the Wesleyan Colleges, institutions of learning, moral cul- ture, and progress, and they had their beginning in the Augusta College. Surely the influence begun in this small town has extended to the far corners of the earth. 1 Dr. Gross, op. cit., p. 23. Augusta College 51 Chapter IV BATTLE OF AUGUSTA The compromise of 1859 formerly proposed by Henry Clay had quieted to some extent the slavery question. The appearance of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852, had provoked bitterness be- tween the North and the South. Mrs. Stowe was a daughter of Lyman Beecher, a noted preacher of Cincinnati. She had a girls' school in Cincinnati, and Marshall Key's daughter was a pupil. He was a trustee of the Augusta College. On a visit to Kentucky, Harriet Beecher stopped at the home of Marshall Key in Washington, Kentucky, and saw a sale of Negroes on the auction block at the old courthouse. It is said that she received her inspiration for her book here. Civil War was being carried on between the states. Augusta seemed to be in a very, vulnerable position as letters of concern were sent to the Augusta trustees by Maysville, Kentucky, Ripley and Felicity, Ohio, offer- ing aid. It is significant that the mayor and city council (F. L. Cleveland, S. T. Powers, Dr. J. J. Bradford, W. S. McKibben, T. F. Marshall, B. H. Rankins, and Joseph Doniphan, mayor) appropriated $1,500 for 100 stand of arms, and made it unlawful to sell any gunpowder. On April 13th, 1861, a new council was elected as follows: Joseph Don- iphan, mayor; W. C. Marshall (grandfather of General George C. Marshall) , T. F. Marshall (he cast the deciding vote in the Senate that kept Kentucky in the Union) , J. T. Bradford (noted Kentucky surgeon) , L. J. Bradford, P. H. Rudd, John Taylor (one of the staunch and true Confederates) , J. B. Ryan, and F. L. Cleveland (first cousin of President Grover Cleveland) . On April 20, 1861, with the appropriation of $1,500 the Home Guard was organized to see that neutrality was observed and to protect the town against guerillas and bushwhackers, or any force that might attack it. Colonel Basil Duke, with his headquarters at Falmouth, Kentucky, had sent Capt. Castleman with a detachment of Morgan's Cavalry to Foster's Landing, six miles below Augusta, to reconnoiter and locate a place on the Ohio where the river could be forded. On Wednesday, September 24th, about forty rebels visited the home of Mrs. Mary Coburn, two and one half miles from Augusta on the Augusta and Georgetown road. The town, still under martial law, must have been apprized of these reconnaissances, and UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY 52 Augusta College every road was picketed at the town limits and about three miles out in the country. Basil Duke, in command of a detachment of Morgan's Cavalry con- sisting of about four hundred and fifty men, including a light artillery com- pany, left Falmouth, Kentucky, on Saturday morning, September 27, 1862, with the intention of breaking up the Home Guard at Augusta, crossing the Ohio at a ford below the town and "marching toward Cincinnati, to threaten the city that the troops at Walton, Kentucky, would be hurried back to protect it." Coming through Brooksville towards Augusta, they captured the outside pickets and brought them with them, coming along the old Augusta and Georgetown road past the Coburn's home, and about a mile down this road, through a hollow, they reached the summit of a one hundred and seventy-five foot hill that overlooks the town. Laying at the wharf were two gunboats of the mosquito fleet; the U.S.S. Belfast, Captain Sedam commanding, and the U.S.S. Florence Miller. Duke determined "to drive them away before moving the bulk of the command from the hill and planted his howitzers on the highest point where they could probably chuck every shell into the boats." The Confederate artillery company on the hill had placed a gun near a large tree. It was discovered by the gunboat Belfast which threw a shell, and so well was it aimed that it struck within thirty feet of the Confed- erate gun, killing two or three of its men and causing a change in its position. Up to this time the people of Augusta were generally unaware of the Confederates on the hill, for when this first shell went over the town there were children playing in the streets away from home. Duke then sent Company A and the advance guard down the road to the east end of the town. Here they would be enabled to annoy the troops on the boats very greatly. The howitzers were then opened on the boats and one shell burst near them, one penetrating the hull of the "Flag Ship," and the fleet was sent scurrying up the river. When the boats were well past the town proper, the Confederates were sent down the road and through the fields into the town. Duke had seen the Home Guards going into the houses, but without gunboat protection he expected an immediate surrender. But the Home Guards had decided to fight for their homes and their neutrality. Duke, entering the town in force, divided his men; they rushed down Elizabeth, Upper and Main streets. The contingent that went down Main Street turned east at Front Street and passed the home of Major Bradford who, feeling he had been deserted by the gunboats and, since there were only fifty or sixty Home Guards in the town at the time, "surrendered with a white flag from his upstairs window." The men in the other houses were unaware of this surrender, and when the Confederate contingent Augusta College 53 turned from Front into Upper Street, they were met by a withering fire from the upstairs windows of the James Armstrong and Thomas Myers buildings, on opposite corners of the street. The men had been unseen by Duke as they entered these houses, and as soon as Captain Cassell and Lieutenant Greenberry Roberts heard the firing, they came to reinforce the men in the streets. Lieutenant Roberts' men were mounted and they added to the confusion. The sergeant who had charge of the howitzers opened fire on the town and Lieutenant Roberts was killed and other Confederates wounded. The artillery sergeant was sent notice to cease firing, and the foot soldiers were ordered to capture the Federal forces in the houses. Lieutenant George White was shot from his horse as he came down Upper Street; Captain Kennett was wounded and died very soon, and Lieutenant William Courtland Prentice (son of George D. Prentice, editor of the Louisville Journal) , was carried, mortally wounded, to the front porch of James Weldon, then to the colonial home of Lewis Wells at the northeast corner of Third and Elizabeth streets, where he died on the Monday following. Captain Whip Rogers of Cynthiana fell at the door of the home of J. T. McKibben on Upper Street, between Front and Second streets. He called for Lieutenant King, to give him a message to his father, Rev. Rogers, a pioneer preacher at Cynthiana. But before he could finish, King was shot from the hallway and died before Rogers. An old man of that company, private Puckett, devotedly attached to both of these men, rushed to raise them, but was instantly killed, falling upon them. A badly wounded Con- federate soldier by the name of Wilson was taken to the home of W. C. Marshall, one of Augusta's largest and finest homes, and Duke told Mrs. Marshall that he had taken two of her sons prisoners and, unless the soldier was well treated, her sons would not be paroled. Details were then ordered to break into the buildings, and the artillery was brought into the streets and turned on the houses where there was resistance. Double-shotted with grape and canister, the howitzers tore great gaps in the walls. Two or three houses were set on fire and Union soldiers were burned in these buildings. Over on Elizabeth Street Captain Sam Morgan, cousin of Colonel John Hunt Morgan, was seriously wounded and was taken to the home of Walter P. Taylor on the corner of Front and Elizabeth streets. Mr. Taylor bathed his face and Mrs. Taylor tore up her linen tablecloth trying to save his life, but he died in the Taylor's home. Duke in his narrative wrote: "Some of the women came (while the fight was raging) from the part of the town where they had retired for safety, to the most dangerous positions, and waited upon the wounded, while the balls were striking around them." 54 Augusta College The little band of Union defenders had fought until holding out was no longer possible, and a general surrender was made. This was a signal for the plundering that followed. Entrance was gained to stores and homes and their contents looted. The firing of the town began at the home of J. T. McKibben and con- tinued to Front Street to the store and home of Thomas Myers; then east, burning the house of John McCormick, occupied by J. B. Ryan, the store of Philip Knoedler, the home of Watson Diltz, a house owned by W. P. Taylor and occupied by the Adams family, and the Taylor's home; and a lumber yard back of the houses. Crossing Elizabeth Street the fire burned the home of Mrs. Howk. She was ill and was carried out of the house by Confederate soldiers. The flames from Tom Howk's drug store leaped over the home of Thornton F. Marshall and destroyed a frame building on the other side, but was brought under control at the home of Vachel Weldon. James Armstrong's store was set on fire on West Upper Street but did not burn, but Robert Patterson's store, below, was destroyed. "About 9:00 or 10:00 o'clock that night, a force started from Ripley, Ohio, with the intention of cutting off Basil Duke's retreat, encumbered as he was with wounded men and prisoners on foot. At Minerva, Kentucky, the recruits were on their way to join their regiments and volunteers from Maysville. Their captain turned the command over to Col. Orange Ed- wards of Ripley, and, on arriving in sight of Brooksville, Duke's forces were seen in possession of the town. These soon came out and formed for a charge. The artillery stationed on the pike fired two shots at Duke's men who, however, had had more fighting than they had expected, so they wheeled about, left their prisoners and double-quicked for Kirby Smith's army, which soon after raised the siege of Cincinnati and retreated south." On Sunday morning, Mrs. Veach took her ten year old son on a tour of inspection. "We went to Front street over Frankfort street, and down Front, horrified at what we saw, and were told what had happened by bystanders here and there until reaching Upper Street, where we went into a store on the west side of Upper and Front to be shown a long row of dead, heads to the counter, bodies all lying with feet to the center of the room. We listened to the names and the incident of of each, by a man who seemed to know. We found horrifying sights of every sort, and when we reached the next corner [now Park] we turned south, and soon came upon Dr. Will Keith's office and residence, where we heard the moaning of some of the wounded. The Doctor said one man had been pierced through eight times, and he still lived, but unconscious. He told us that one had died in the afternoon." A foray such as this one at Augusta was disastrous to Duke's command as he had lost several efficient officers, and his daring plan had failed. Augusta College 55 Besides the loss of its valuable citizens, Augusta had seen over two and a half blocks of the town destroyed by fire, with some of its finest homes. The Union soldiers killed were: Dr. William H. Taylor, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, associated with Dr. Joshua T. Bradford; Charles A. Landen, a student of the Augusta College; Alpheus McKibben; J. J. Gephart; George Byar; John Perkins; N. B. Worthington; John B. Story; Oliver Stairs; W. Gregg, and five wounded men. Duke reported his loss as twenty-one killed and eighteen wounded, including "some matchless offi- cers." 1 "We hope these cruel outrages upon the people of this state are un- avoidable. We hope it may fully appear to be so; but if the Tenth Ken- tucky Cavalry, raised around Augusta and this place (Maysville) had been left to defend them it could not have chanced." 2 1 Walter H. Rankins, Morgan's Cavalry and the Home Guard, Augusta, Ken- tucky. Filson Club History Quarterly, October 1953. 2 Letter to H. G. Wright, ORU & C.A.A.P.C. et Series 1, Vol. XVI, page 1011, ff. 56 Augusta College Chapter V EDUCATIONAL CENTER AND CULTURAL SURROUNDINGS Augusta's progress had been retarded but not its schools. The Bracken Female Academy was chartered by the Kentucky Legis- lature in 1836 and occupied the former Bracken Academy buildings. Misses Louise and Julia Prinz, from Virginia, were the first teachers, and Henry Bascom was one of its first trustees. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas S. Orr established the Augusta Female College in the Augusta College building, and among the teachers were Miss Eliza McCracken and Miss Jane Silverthorn, of Virginia. The latter became the wife of William J. Rankins. The building was damaged by fire in 1852 and again in 1856, but a new and more modern one was erected before 1860. Mr. Orr had died and Mr. A. C. Armstrong married Mrs. Orr, and the Augusta Female College was continued. Mrs. Mary Armstrong Lauderbach, who founded the Philip Buckner Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution in Bracken County, was their daughter. Professor B. T. Bluett continued the Augusta College and Professor G. M. Yancey established the Augusta Male and Female College. From the Bracken Chronicle, August 24, 1871: AUGUSTA MALE AND FEMALE COLLEGE The next Session of this Institution will begin on the 11th day of September, 1871. A full corps of Teachers is secured to take charge of the different Departments. The course of study is such as is found in the best schools and colleges (male and female) . For further particulars address, G. M. YANCEY, A.M. : ; *A' The Sylvanus McKibben Home on Williams Street The Augusta Public and High School. A Large Gymnasium Has Been Added Knoedler Memorial Library Within This Row Was the Girls' School of Miss "Birdie" Blades Augusta College 57 There were private schools also. Professor Britt, of Harvard Univer- sity, conducted a select girls' school in the second floor rooms of the home of Mr. James Kinney. Mr. Richard Mitchell had a school in the home afterwards owned by Mr. and Mrs. Kendall Morgan. Mr. Mitchell, who had married Miss Belle Rankin, was head of the Augusta College, and after his death Mrs. Mitchell continued the College. Later she married Hon. F. L. Cleveland. Dr. Stevenson graduated from Transylvania during the presidency of Dr. Bascom. He was elected Superintendent of Public Instruction of Ken- tucky on the same ticket that elected Abraham Lincoln President of the United States. Dr. Stevenson reestablished Union College at Barbourville, Kentucky, and was one of the founders of Kentucky Wesleyan College and was elected President of the reestablished Augusta College in 1879. This college again had the support of the Methodist Conference and continued until 1887 when it was acquired by the town trustees and became a public grade and high school. "Undoubtedly one of the most decisive contributions to Christian edu- cation in Kentucky during the last half of the Nineteenth Century was made by Dr. Daniel Stevenson." 1 The college building was replaced by the present public and high school system. A large gymnasium has been added. The list of the professors, teachers and graduates of this school is to be found preserved in the school archives. It has been a progressive and important public high school, with proficient and meritorious professors and teachers and, with the inspiration of the notable schools it succeeded, it is doing an excellent work in the community. Augusta was ever mindful that its churches were the bulwark of our civilization and that they were the most important influence for good. There have been many learned and devout men who were ministers, and great care and pride have been taken in buildings and equipment of its eight churches. They are, in the order of their founding in Augusta: The Augusta Presbyterian Church, The Methodist Episcopal Church, The Augusta Baptist Church, St. Paul's Methodist Church (colored), St. Au- gustine's Catholic Church, The Augusta Christian Church, The First Church of the Nazarene, and The Pilgrim Holiness Church. Dr. John Owen Gross, President, Union College. 58 Augusta College Chapter VI INDUSTRIAL PERIOD Augusta has had fine hotels. They have been well appointed and have entertained many notable people. The Bodman and Smith hotels were located on Riverside Drive, and colorful Senator Joe Blackburn was a frequent visitor. The story is told of a visit to his suite by a Democratic politician who took a boy from a Republican family to see him, and, with his characteristic good humor, he sent back to this family the story of the man who crawled into a hollow log to spend the night and it rained so hard that the log shrank leaving but a small opening — so small that the man could not get out. He thought of all the mean things he had done, and he remembered that he had at one time voted the Republican ticket, and he felt so little about it that he was able to crawl out this tiny opening. Congressman Sam Pugh was an important Republican guest and had many torchlight parades in his honor. The Parkview hotel, built by T. E. Milner followed these hotels, is an asset to the city. Bryant's showboat, a leader among showboats on the Ohio, gave its first performance at Augusta, and the John Robinson Circus often showed in the town, to the edification and delight of the small boys. Augusta was a good Chautauqua town and demanded excellent talent. Among its many attractions were: lectures by William Jennings Bryan and Vice President Thomas A. Marshall. Russell Hall, dedicated by Sol. Smith Russell, was Bracken County's and Augusta's largest entertainment building. Augusta became an exceptional community of accomplished and cul- tured families who, though not provincial, built their lives around their lovely churches and beautiful homes, and this was due in part to the noble heritage of the Augusta College. These were the families of Taylor, Stevenson, Powers, Marshall, Brad- ford, Harbeson, Dunbar, Gibbons, Boude, Hamilton, Knoedler, Reese, Steen, Rankins, Norris, Wilson, Armstrong, McKibben, Power, Wittmeier, Clark, Gray, Patterson, Cleveland, Neider, Reynolds, Allen, Ryan, Winters, Ful- kerson, Weldon, Walker, Toleman, Robbins, Caden, Myers, Faber, Diltz, Augusta College 59 Wood, Hobday, Ludwig, Harris, Asbury, Robertson, Bayless, Blackerby, Hook and many others. The generations that were to follow inherited the spirit and influence of their forebears, and have become prominent statesmen, doctors, lawyers, journalists, playwrights, pharmacists, dentists, educational leaders, news- papermen, high ranking army officers, businessmen, musicians, and have taken their part in world affairs. The many fine schools that followed the Augusta College also played their part in this development. These schools have given an outstanding opportunity for education to the men and women of Bracken and the surrounding counties, and the culture and wealth of the many diversified business interests of Augusta are due in part to their influence. The heads of these business and civic enterprises were: William Gib- bons, J. B. Ryan, William J. Rankins, J. Pike Powers, Charles McCormick, Thomas J. Taylor, T. D. Ryan, J. B. Ryan, S. T. Powers, H. C. Liter, Robert Liter, W. W. Orr, Henry Sisson, J. S. Orr, Al. Hurm, G. J. Daum, Lewis Wei- mer, John Fleming, John Armer, S. D. Keen, John Malkus, C. Stevalter, John Bradley, Frank C. McKibben, John Insko, George H. McKibben, George Kerans, H. B. Asbury, M. W. Hagen, Major John Robbins, Henry Bertram, B. F. Ginn, J. E. Dunbar, B. F. Taylor, J. W. McKibben, W. O. Holmes, P. B. Powers, S. W. McKibben, Clarence Hunter, Mrs. S. D. Crum- baugh, Mrs. Mattie Russell, L. P. Brockman, John Owens, G. W. Edington, Charles Hook, John O'Neill, C. A. Reese, Len Wittmeier, John I. Winter, William McKibben, Sr., J. W. Robbins, James Boude, Charles Federer, Richard Lane, John Buerger, William Sayers, F. M. Fulkerson, Frank Barkley, John Kennard, Milton Taylor, R. P. Yates, William Wittmeier, Isaac Reynolds, Dan List, John T. Jackson, William Work, A. D. Pumpelly, Newton Evans, M. T. Flannery, George Given, Charles Bachman, Louis Weber, William Clark, George Teegarden, J. R. Wilson, Frank Bradley, Dr. Charles Rice, James A. Thompson, Edward Thompson, Dr. R. L. Harvie, Dr. Edwin Smith, Dr. Joseph Stoekle, Dr. H. B. Taylor, John Reisser, M. Schweitzer, John Stroube, F. Anderson, Lewis Wolf, Finley Henderson, Louis Jones, Dr. J. E. Robertson, Charles Bradley, James Reese, Edwin Toleman, C. K. Bradford, William Fields, John Gray, W. J. Maloney, and others. Notable among the early business institutions whose influence and trade were far reaching were: The Allen and Harbeson Bank of William Allen, John M. Harbeson and Benjamin Harbeson; The Augusta Milling Company of N. J. Stroube; The G. W. Moneyhan Lumber Co.; The John Oldham's Cigar Factory; The John Cablish Bakery; The Farm Machinery business of A. E. Rankins; The L. P. Knoedler and Sons Drug Company of L. P. Knoedler, Philip Knoedler, Gibbons Knoedler and A. Robbins. 60 Augusta College Early professional men were: Master Commissioner J. P. Reese; Judge J. R. Minor; Dr. M. W. Steen, D.D.S.; Joseph Felix, Attorney; Judge George Doniphan; Dr. S. D. Laughlin, D.D.S.; Dr. A. A. Mannon; Judge Matthew Harbeson, and Dr. J. C. Norris, whose wide experience and medi- cal knowledge made him one of Augusta's most valuable men. And later Attorneys M. Hargett, M. J. Hennessey, Dr. Joseph Wittmeier, and Dr. Charles G. Steen, D.D.S. The men who followed this generation and those who are continuing these business enterprises and professions are well-known Augusta men who have done and are doing their part to uphold the high standard of their predecessors. The Masonic Lodge, Augusta Lodge No. 80, F. & A. M., was the first fraternal organization in Augusta, and others that followed added interest and good will. Augusta is a city that has kept abreast of the times, and, realizing the advent of an industrial period, it at once used its energy and time to influence industries to locate here, and these have been of great benefit to the city and surrounding community. These include the F. A. Neider Company, international in scope; the E. H. Huenefeld Company, manufac- turing Boss washing machines; the L. V. Marks & Sons Company, with wide- spread interests that send its product to the large distributing centers; the Kentucky Power Company, now the Kentucky Utilities Company, a large organization that is state-wide, and the Northeastern Telephone Company which made Augusta one of the first small cities to have automatic tele- phones, both organized by Barrett Waters of Cincinnati and Augusta; and lately the Clopay Corporation, manufacturers of window shades and plastics. The Mary Inglis scenic highway, skirting the Ohio River, will pass through Augusta. The newspapers contributed in their way to the preservation of the history of the Augusta College by recounting its activities both in reports and in advertisements, thus keeping alive for the future parts of the story of the work of its leaders and of its students. Among the newspapers pub- lished in Augusta in the early 1820s were the Bracken Sentinel and the Augusta Watchman, this latter owned by John and Johnson Armstrong of Maysville, Kentucky, and later by Sarah Armstrong. The Western Watch- man, edited and published by H. H. Kavanaugh for James Armstrong, in 1822. The Reflector, edited by S. Oglesby and E. Carpenter in 1829, was the newspaper during the college days, and the Bracken Chronicle has been owned and published by several generations of the Thompson family. The Knoedler Memorial Library, given by Mr. Philip Knoedler, of Chicago, in memory of his parents who were so prominently associated Augusta College 61 with Augusta, is one of the finest small library buildings of Northern Kentucky. The World Wars have found this community patriotic and loyal. Its sons and daughters have performed their part valiantly and not without bravery and high honor. Augusta has a Rotary, Lions, American Legion and Veterans of For- eign Wars organizations and prominent social clubs, modern business es- tablishments and is a city of lovely homes and congenial people. 62 Augusta College EPILOGUE Augusta, a jewel of a town, set in a favored spot, rimmed by green hills, fronted by the majestic Ohio River so strikingly beautiful for a long stretch, with its vista of radiant sunsets, has a history of nostalgic memories, a history that has played an important part in the world's progress. The founders of the Augusta College, first Methodist Col- lege, were wise in choosing this beautiful site for it also offered the charm of homes of culture to be enjoyed by the students, who carried into their new environments the impressions gained here in college, church and home. Here were great minds to light the torch of thought and thus stimulate the younger men to greater fields of endeavor. Christian morals and zeal, dignity of learning and gra- cious living, the discipline of mind and the growth of char- acter, all were here to help mold to the advantage of the world at large. It was not an ingrown effort, but one that was far-flung and widely effective. The achievements of the Augusta College comprise a page in the history of Methodism and of Kentucky that is a high honor to both community and state. Nostalgic memories will ever turn back to those active days with grateful thoughts and hopes for the future. Al- though the college is no longer in existence its influence is felt down through the years for, like the stately river on whose bank it flourished, the importance of this first Methodist College will long endure. 'Where the River Runs in a Direct Course for Several Miles" Augusta College 63 INDEX Acies, Rev. Peter, 28. Adair, William, 32. Adams, family, 54. Aldredge, Robert, 34. Allbreck, J. S., 32. Allen & Harbeson Bank, 59. Allen, William, 29. American Legion, 61. Ancient remains, 14. Anderson, Edward L., 34. Anderson, F., 59. Anderson, Joseph H., 34. Anderson, Richard H., 34. Anderson, W. W., 32. Anderson, William J., 34. Ankeney, B. F., 32. Armer, John, 59. Armstrong, A. C, 56. Armstrong, James, 16, 26, 30, 34, 53, 54. Armstrong, John, 22, 28. Armstrong, T. H., 29. Arnold, W. E., Hist, of Methodism in Kentucky, ftn. 21, 23, 26. Asbury, H. B., 59. Augusta, Kentucky, Board of Health, 18; Business and civic enterprises, 50- 60; Clubs, 61; County Seat, 19; Doc- tors, 18; Early history, 16; Ferries, see; First business (hatter's), 18; Founded 15, 17-18; Library, 60; Lo- cation, 13; Market House & Laws, 18; Masonic Lodge, 60; Newspapers, see; Plat of, 20; Professional men, 60; Schools, see; Streets and roads, 17, 19, 23, 50; Water system, 18. Augusta Chronicle, 60. Augusta Churches, 57; Augusta Presby- terian, Methodist Episcopal, Augusta Baptist, St. Paul's Methodist (col- ored), St. Augustine's Catholic, Au- gusta Christian, First Church of the Nazarene, Pilgrim Holiness. Augusta College, 1822-1849; Alumni, 28 et seq.; By-laws, ftn. 24, 39; Closing 1849, 50; Commencement, 24, 43; Curriculum, 24, 40 et seq.; Expenses, 24; Faculty, 26, et seq.; Founded, 21, 23, 24 et seq., 60, 62; Honorary de- gree LL.D., 47; Library, 40; Literary societies, 31, 32, 33, 49; Pledge, 40; Professorships, 44. Augusta families, 58. Augusta Female College, 56. Augusta Male & Female College, 56. Augusta Milling Co., 59. Bachman, Charles, 59. Bailie, R. R., 34. Bailie, William, 34. Bakery, 59. Ball, Spencer J., 34. Bank, see Allen & Harbeson. Barker, , 16, 34. Barkley, Frank, 59. Barrere, Granville, 32. Barrere, Nelson, 34. Bascom, A., 34. Bascom, Rev. Henry B., 21, 26, 42, 43, 49. Bate, John T., 34. Battle of Augusta, 51 et seq. Beech, Erasmus D., 34. Beecher, Lyman, 51. Beel and Brown, 16. "Belfast," U.S.S., 52. Bennett, Prince, 32. Berry, L. H., 32. Betram, Henry, 59. Best, Jacob, 34. Bettas, E., 32. Biddison, Aaron, 34. Bishop, D. H., 34. Bishop, J. H., 34. Black, Joseph, 32. Blackburn, Senator Joe, 7, 58. Blades, Foster H., 32. Blanchard, John, 16, 17. Bland, J. C, 32. Bluett, Prof. B. T., 56. Bonton, John, 32. Boss Washing Machine Co., 60. Boude, Duval Payne, 32. Boude, James, 59. Boude, John, 16, 32. Boude, John A., 29. Boude's ferry, see ferries. Bracken Co., Ky., 16. 64 Augusta College Bracken Academy, 17, 23, 56. Bracken Chronicle, 1871, 56. Bracken Female Academy, 56. Bracken Sentinel, 1820, 60. Bradford, C. K., 59. Bradford, J. T., 51. Bradford, Dr. Jonathan, 18, 27. Bradford, Johnson, 28. Bradford, Dr. Joshua, 30, 49, 55. Bradford, L. J., 51. Bradford, Laura, 27. Bradford, Margaret Marshall, 28. Bradford, Dr. T. T., 29. Bradford, Dr. Thomas Stuart, 27, 28. Brading, G., 34. Bradley, Charles, 59. Bradley, Frank, 59. Bradley, John, 59. Bradshaw, John S., 34, 43. Breathitt, Gov. John, 30. Breathitt, John W., 30, 32. Britt, Prof. , 57. Broadwell, J. E., 32. Brockman, L. P., 59. Brooks, F. C, 32. Brooks, Karl H., 32. Brooks, Ransom, 34, 37, 38. Brooks, William, 16, 17. Brooksville, Ky., 19. Broshiers, Thomas, 16. Brown and Beel, 16. Brown, Judge George N., 31. Brown, J. H., 32. Brown, John, 23. Brown, W. R., 34. Brunnell, David, 16. Bryan, William Jennings, 58. Bryant's Show Boat, 58. Buckner, Philip, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. Buckner, Philip, Chapter D. A. R., 56. Buckner, William, 16, 19, 28, 32. Buckner, William I. T., 34. Buerger, John, 59. Business firms, see list, 59. Cabell, Charles, 34. Cablish, John, bakery, 59. Caldwell, Dr. Charles, 36. Caldwell, James, 17. Campbell, William, 34, 43. Carey, John L., 34. Carnal, Ruben H., 32. Carneal, Thomas D., 28. Carson, Samuel, 32. Carter, Thomas, 34. Cartwright, Peter, 23. Case, Goldsmith, 16. Cassett, John W., 34. Cassell, Capt. , 53. Cassiday, George, 32. Castleman, J. B., 51. Chalfant, L. A. W., 32. Chambers, Gov. of Iowa Terr., John, 27. Chambers, Joseph, 34. Chambrun, Countess de, 29. Chapman, A., 27, 41, 44. Chew, Philemon L., 34. Chew, Wallers S., 34. Chiles, David, 32. Churches, in Augusta, 57. Cigar factory, 59. Clark, Austin M., 31, 32. Clark, G. P., 32. Clark, George H. R., 34. Clark, J. B., 29. Clark, James R., 34. Clark, Joshua A., 34. Clark, Milton E., 31, 32. Clark, William, 59. Clay, Cassius M., 29. Clay, Frederick P., 34. Clay, Hon. Henry, 36, 51. Cleveland, Francis L., 27, 32, 51. Cleveland, Pres. Grover, 27. Cleveland, Justice Harlan, 27. Clift, G. Glenn, 7. Clinton, L. A., 34. Cline, D. S., 7. Clopay Corp., window shades, plastics, 60. Clubs, 61. Cobb, Stephen, 34. Coburn, Mrs. Mary, 51. Cochrain, J. T., 32. Cochran, John, 34. Cokesbury College, Md., 23. Coleman, Dr. J. Winston, Jr., 7. Coleman, James, 17. Collard, William A., 32. Collins, Louis, Hist, of Ky., ftn. 13, 14, 23. Collins, J. B., 32. Collins, Rev. John, 21. Colson, Thomas R., 32. Commonwealth, The, Frankfort, Ky., 1835, 44. Cook, A. B., 32. Augusta College 65 Cook, William P., 34, 43. Cookrill, Granville L., 34. Corwine, Richard, 23. Cotton, J. B., 32. Cotton, J. W., 32. Cotton, M. B., 32. Cougill, W. H., 32. Crain, Rev. O. S., 7. Cramer, Zadok, 13. Crawford, Alexander, 34. Crossman, Henrietta, 48. Crouch, Marshall, 7. Crumbaugh, Mrs. S. D., 59. Cummins, Alexander, 21. Cunningham, J. W., ftn. 37. Curren, Sam C, 32. Daughters of the American Revolution, Philip Buckner Chapter, 56. Dacey, William, 32. Damarat, M. F., 32. Damron, I. C, 35. Daum, G. J., 59. David, Joseph L., 34. Davis, David, 16. Davis, Frederick A., 27. David, John, 16. Davis, Joseph W., 43. Davis, Robert, 16. Davis, Robert V., 35. Deem, Adam C, 35. Dickore, Marie, 7. Diltz, Abraham, 32. Diltz, Watson, 54. Dobyns, Thomas, 34. Doniphan, Gen. Alexander W., 29. Doniphan, George, 28, 29, 60. Doniphan, Joseph, 16, 30, 51. Doniphan, W. A„ 32. Donavan, James, 16. Drug Co., Knoedler, 59. DuBose, D., 32. Duke, Col. Basil, 51 et seq. Duke, G. F., 32. Dunbar, J. E., 59. Durbin, John P., 26. Dutten, George W., 35. Dyas, Charles, 34. Dowsing, William, 34. Ebert, Philip, 16. Eckstein, Frederick, 27. Edington, G. W., 59. Edmondson, Henry, 32. Edwards, Col. Orange, 54. Edwards, William H., 32. Ellington, J. W., 32. Elliott, Collins, 35. Elliott, W. R., 32. Ellis, Robert B., 35. Espy, L. S., 34. Evans, Daniel, 34. Evans, Newton, 59. Evening Herald, The, 36. Family Magazine, 1838, ftn. 24, 25. Farm machinery, Rankins, 59. Farrer, Frederick, 35. Farrer, Thomas P., 35. Federer, Charles, 59. Fee, John Gregg, 17, 28. Fee, Rev. W. I., 36. Felix, Joseph, 60. Ferries, 5, 25, 40, 49. Fetstone, James B., 32. Field, Silas H., 32. Field, Cyrus, 30. Field, Curtis, 30, 32. Field, Judge Emmett, 30. Field, Larkin, 30. Field, O. H, 32. Field, Silas, 30. Field, Stephen, 30. Fields, William, 59. Finley, Rev. James, 28. Finley, Rev. John P., 22, 25, 26. Finley, Rev. Robert, 25. Flannery, M. T., 59. Fleming, John, 59. Florey, D., 34. Folkes, R., 32. Foster, Asa, 35. Foster, Eliza Tomlinson, 26. Foster, Henrietta, 48. Foster, Israel, 28. Foster, Jeremiah H, 34. Foster, Polly Kain, 28. Foster, Randolph Sinks, 28. Foster, Stephen Collins, 7, 26, 47. Foster, William, 26. Foster, William B., Jr., 47. Fox, Benjamin F., 32. French, Capt. A. B., 31. Friday Courier, 36. Fulkerson, F. M., 59. 66 Augusta College Gains, E. P., 32. Gano, Richard M., 17. Garland, H. S., 35. Garlinghouse, Jesse, 34. Gatch, Rev. Philip, 29. Gatch, Dr. Philip D., 29. Gephart, J. J., 55. Gibbons, William, 32, 59. Gibson, W. M., 35. Gilkeson, Mrs. Crawford, 7. Gill, Henry E, 35. Gilmore, Gorden R., 35. Ginn, B. F., 59. Gissan, Henry V., 32. Given, George, 59. Goddard, A., 32. Goodloe, Davis S., 35. Gordy, William S., 32. Grafton, George, 32. Grant, Orvil, 35. Gray, Prof. E. W., 27, 34. Gray, John, 59. Gray, S. S., 34. Grayson, W. P., 35. Green, Abner, 35. Gregg, W., 55. Griffin, George J., 35. Griffin, John S., 35. Griffin, O., 32. Groesbeck, William S. of Cincinnati, 29, 34. Gross, John Owens, Christian Advocate, 1836, ftn. 23. Grosvenor, Charles, 31. Groves, G. W., 32. Gum, William, 32. Hagen, M. W., 59. Haile, Thomas L., 35. Haille, Thomas P., 38. Hall, Alfred J., 31. Hall, Calvin D., 31. Hall, S. P., 34. Hall, Thomas J., Jr., 31. Hall, William C, 31. Hamilton, E. W., 32. Hamilton, R. P., 29. Hamilton, T. S., 29. Hamilton, William P., 35. Harbeson, Mrs. Ben, 7. Harbeson, Benjamin, 59. Harbeson, Georgie, 7. Harbeson, John M., 59. Harbeson, Judge Matthew, 60. Hardwick, G. M., 34. Hargett, M., 60. Harmon, J. W., 35. Harmon, Z., 18, 19. Harris, W. A., 32. Harrison, George H., 35. Harrison, Prof. , 27. Harrison, William Henry, 14, 28. Harvie, Alberta, 7. Harvie, Dr. R. L., 59. Hawkins, John O. T., 28. Height, John, 34. Helm, Mrs. Mark, 7. Henderson, Mr. , 18. Henderson, Finley, 59. Hennessey, M. J., 60. Henry, William, 17. Higgs, Jonathan, 14. Hinde, James B., 35. Hinze, W. E., 34. Hodges, Fletcher, Jr., 7. Holliday, Charles, 21, 23. Holman, William, 21, 23. Holmes, Rev. George S., 43. Holmes, W. O., 59. Holton, Augustus F., 35. Hook, Charles, 59. Hook, Reynolds, 29. Hopple, Matthews F., 35, 43. Hord, William, 16. Hotels, Bodman, Smith, Parkview, 58. Howell, Edward, 32. Howell, Elijah, 32. Howell, Thomas, 32. Howk, Mrs. , 54. Howk, Tom, drug store, 54. Hubs, Dana, 32. Hughes, John T., Doniphan's Expedition, ftn. 30. Hulbert, William P. F., 29, 35. Humphrey, James, 32. Huenefeld, E. H. Co., 60. Hunt, John, 16. Hunter, Clarence, 59. Hurm, Al, 59. Huston, Judge George, 30. Ingles, Thomas, 28. Inglis, Mary Inglis Highway, 60. Insko, John, 59. Irwin, , 27. Augusta College 67 Jackson, J. B., 35. Jackson, James Madison, Va., 43. Jackson, John T., 59. James, E., 32. James, John H., mss, ftn. 27. Jefferson Chronicle, The, 36. Jefferson Literary Society, 31, 34, 36, 49. Jefferson Medical College, 27. Jennings, James W., 29. Johnson, Gen. A. S., 31. Johnson, Herman, 27. Johnson, John, 23. Johnson, William, 35. Jones, Charles A., 35. Jones, Louis, 59. Jones, William, 35. Jones, William F., 34. Jordon, Francis, 32. Kavanaugh, Rev. H. H., 43. Keen, S. D. ( 59. Keene, Richard, 18. Keener, Moses H., 35. Kennett, Capt. , 53. Keith, Dr. Anderson, 16. Keith, John R., 32. Keith, Dr. William, 54. Kemp, J. L., 27. Kennard, John, 59. Kennedy, Phillip, 34. Kentucky Gazette, The, 1795, ftn. 15. Kentucky Power Co., 60 Kentucky Utilities Co., 60 Kentucky Wesleyan College, 57. Kerans, George, 59. Key, Thomas Marshall, 28, 43, 51. Kilgour, David, 14. Kincheloe, Charles R., 35. King, Lt. , 53. King, F. D., 32. King, F. E., 32. King, F. P., 32. King, I. W., 33. King, Richard E., 35. King, Rodney, 35. Kinney, James, 57. Knoedler, Gibbons, 59. Knoedler, L. P. & Sons, Drug Co., 59. Knoedler, Memorial Library, 60. Knoedler, Philip, 54, 59. Lackie, Henry, 33. Lakin, William B., 34. Lamborn, Josiah, 34, 37. Landen, Charles A., 55. Lane, E. M., 33. Lane, Richard, 59. Landrum, Francis, 28. Lauderbach, Mrs. Mary Armstrong, 56. Laughlin, Dr. S. D., 60. Lawrence, Edward, 35. Lawrence, Josiah, 28. Leanord, S. L., 34. Lee, , 16. Leener, W. T., 34. Leigh, Benjamin Watkins, 43. Leigh, James, 35. Leinn, G. W., 33, 35. Lewis, Samuel, 28. Lewis, William B., 35. Library, Knoedler Memorial, 60; Augus- ta College, 40. Light, George C, 23, 28. Lilly, Josiah K., 7. Lincoln, Abraham, 57. Lindsay, Marcus, 21, 23. Linney, H. M., 33. Lions, 61. List, Dan, 59. Liter, H. C, 59. Liter, Robert, 59. Littell, William, ftn. 17. Lock, Jesse, 34. Lock, Stephen, 34. Locke, I., 33. Locke, John H., 33. Lodwick, Preston, 35. Logan, Joseph, 16, 17. Long, George, 35. Long, John, 35. Longworth, Clara, 29. Longworth, Joseph, 29. Longworth, Nicholas, 29. Love, Edward, 34. Loving, Robert G., 34, 43. Lumber, 59. Lynch, Thomas H., 27. McAfee, Robert, 13. McCasland, H., 34. McClain, Charles, 16, 17. McCleary, John, 28. McConthy, John, 33. McCormick, Charles, 59. 68 Augusta College McCormick, John E., 16, 18, 54. McCown, Rev. B. H., 27, 41, 44. McCracken, Eliza, 56. McCullom, Dr. , 36. McDowell, John, 28. McDowell, Gen. Joseph, 30. McDowell, Dr. William, 31. McDowell, William, 33. McFarland, Robert White, 30. Mclntyre, Alexander, 34. Mclntyre, Thomas G., 35. McKay, Josiah M., 33. McKibben, Alpheus, 55. McKibben, Frank C, 59. McKibben, George H., 59. McKibben, Joseph T., 28, 54. McKibben, J. D., 29. McKibben, J. W., 59. McKibben, W. S., 51, 59. McKibben, William, Sr., 59. McMillion, Samuel, 17. McLean, Hon. John, 28. McLeod, Mr. , 27. McNeal, James, 33. McNelly, George, 23. Mackey, Dr. George W., 16, 17, 28. Mackie, W. H., 33. Magruder, A. L. C, 34. Magruder, Hillary, 35. Magruder, William, 35. Maloney, W. J., 59. Mannon, Dr. A. A., 60. Market House, Augusta, 18. Marks, L. V. & Sons Co., 60. Marshall, George, 33. Marshall, George Catlett, 27. Marshall, George Catlett, Jr., 28, 51. Marshall, John, 16. Marshall, Chief Justice John, 27. Marshall, Marie, 28. Marshall, Martin, 16, 22, 27, 30. Marshall, Nicholas B. T., 30, 35. Marshall, Stuart, 27. Marshall, Vice-Pres. Thomas A., 35, 58. Marshall, Thornton F., 29, 51, 54. Marshall, Rev. William, 27. Marshall, William Champe, 27, 28, 51, 53. Marshall, William S., 27. Martin, M. C, 33. Mason, Ky., Land Book, ftn. 14. Masonic Lodge, Augusta Lodge No. 80, F. & A. M., 60. Masterton, Richard, 14. Matthews, J. McDowell, 30. Matthews, W. M., 33. Mears, John, 28. Meek, Rev. John, 28. Meek, William S., 35. Melvin, Samuel, 34. Meranda, Isaac, 16. Meranda, James, 16. Mercer, William Newton, 13. Merwin, Rev. John B., 31, 43. Methodist Episcopal Church, 57. Miley, John W., 28. Miller, U.S.S. "Florence Miller," 52. Miller, William C, 33. Milner, T. E., 58. Minor, Gideon, 28. Minor, Judge J. R., 60. Mitchell, Richard, 57. Moneyhan, G. W. Lumber Co., 59. Monroe, Sidney H., 35. Moore, H., 33. Morgan's Cavalry, 51 et seq. Morgan, Col. John Hunt, 53. Morgan, Mr. and Mrs. Kendall, 57. Morgan, Capt. Sam, 53. Morris, B. F., 34, 49. Morris, Dickinson, 16, 17. Morris, Joseph, 16. Morris, Thomas A., 23. Morton, Thomas, 33. Muing, John, 33. Murphy, C. W., 33. Murray, Alfred, 33. Myers, Alfred I. N., 33. Myers, Mrs. Bell, 17. Myers, Thomas, 25, 53, 54. Nailer, Daniel B., 35. Nash, F., 33. Nash, G. M., 33. Nash, James L., 33. Nash, Stephen E., 35. Neider, F. A., 60. Nelson, Thomas, 16. Newspapers, Augusta Herald, 25; Au- gusta Chronicle, 25, 60; Augusta Watchman, 60; Bracken Sentinel, 1820, 19, 60; Bracken Chronicle, 56; Cynthiana Observer, 1825, 25; The Reflector, 1829, 60; Western Watch- man, 1822, 60; Zion's Advocate, 22. Augusta College 69 Nixon, Samuel, 35. Norris, Dr. J. C, 60. Northeastern Telephone Co., 60. Nottingham, W., 33. Oglesby, John H., 35. Oldham, John, Cigar factory, 59. O'Neill, John, 59. Orr, J. S., 59. Orr, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas S., 56. Orr, Will W., 33, 59. Ovny, John W., 33. Owens, John, 59. Patterson, Abraham, 16. Patterson, Nathaniel, 16, 17. Patterson, Robert, 54. Pattie, John, 17. Paxton, William, The Marshall Family, 31. Payne, S. W., 33. Payne, John, 14, 16, 28. Penyton, William D., 33. Perkins, John, 55. Perrin, W. H., ftn., Kentucky History of the State, 1888, 30. Perryman, John W., 35. Phillips, Charles M., 35, 43. Phister, Elijah C, 33. Pierce, W. R., 33. Plastics, Clopay Corp., 60. Pogeke, J. L., 33. Pollock, Dr. Alfred H., 34, 38. Portes, David, 34. Porter, A. Bruce, 33. Portis, Mr. , 37. Poulson, Robert J., 31. Powell, Alfred, 28. Power, Benjamin F., 29, 33. Powers, F. L., 29. Powers, Hiram, 27. Powers, J. Pike, 59. Powers, James A., 29. Powers, John R., 35. Powers, P. B., 29, 59. Powers, Mrs. Robert B., 7. Powers, S. T., 51, 59. Powers, Thomas, 33. Prentice, George D., of Louisville, Ky., 53. Prentice, Lt. William Courtland, 53. Preston, John, Va., 31. Preston, Gen. William, 31, 35. Price, Henry B., 35. Price, L., 33. Prinz, Julia, Va., 56. Prinz, Louise, Va., 56. Puckett, Pvt. , 53. Pugh, Congressman, Sam, 58. Pumpelly, A. D., 59. Purer, W. C, 33. Quinn, John H., 33. Rabb, Charles, 35. Ranels, Job B., 33. Rankin, Miss Belle, 57. Rankins, Albert Edwin, 3, 59. Rankins, B. H., 51. Rankins, B. S., 29. Rankins, Emma Taylor, 3. Rankins, Walter H., Morgan's Cavalry and the Home Guard, Augusta, Ky., ftn. 54, 55. Rankins, Will, 7. Rankins, William J., see Silverthorn, 33, 59. Raynolds, O. P., 33. Rees, John, 34, 35. Reese, Addison, 34, 38. Reese, C. A., 59. Reese, J. P., 60. Reese, James, 59. Rehy, Samuel H., 33. Reisser, John, 59. Reynolds, Isaac, 59. Rice, Dr. Charles, 59. Richey, J. C, 35. Ricks, J. W., 34. Riggs, Paul, 34. Right, Pascal F., 35. Ring, Walter, 33. Robbins, Prof. , 27. Robbins, Augustus, 35, 59. Robbins, J. W., 59. Robbins, Maj. John, 59. Roberts, Lt. Greenberry, 53. Robertson, C. E., 29. Robertson, E. W., 33. Robertson, George, Chief Justice of Ky 47. Robertson, Dr. J. E., 59. Robertson, William H., 35. Robinson, John, Circus, 58. Robinson, George W., 34. Robinson, Luke, 35. 70 Augusta College -, 53. Rogers, Rev. Rogers, Capt. Whip, 53. Rossel, Stephen S., 35. Roszell, John, 34. Roszell, Samuel, 34. Rozel, Mr. , 37. Rucker, Henry L., 35. Rudd, P. H., 51. Russell, William, 33. Russell, Mrs. Mattie, 59. Russell Hall, 58. Russell, Sol. Smith, 58. Rust, John, 13. Rust, Matthews, 13. Ruter, Augustus W., 34. Ruter, Rev. Martin, 21, 26, 36. Ruter, Philander S., 35. Ryan, D. L., 33. Ryan, J. B., 51, 54, 59. Ryan, James, 35. Ryan, T. D., 59. Salter, William, 33. Sanford, Joseph P., 36. Savage, Dr. C. S., 33. Savage, Rev. Francis A., 28. Savage, Dr. George, 23. Savage, Rev. James, 28. Savage, William, 59. Schoolfield, John, 16. Schoolfield, Joseph, 28. Schoolfield, Robert, 16. Schoolfield, William, 36. Schweitzer, M., 59. Scott, C. O., 33. Sedam, Capt. , 52. Sell, F. M., 33. Sells, John, 16. Sessions, Joseph W., 35. Shaefer, Henry A., 33. Shaifer, Stephen P., 33. Shakleford, Samuel R., 35. Shepherd, Chancy B., 35. Short, Jonathan, 33. Shropshire, Squire G., 28. Showboat, Bryant's, 58. Silverthorn, Jane, Va., 56. Simmons, Thomas Jefferson Nicholas, 34. Simmons, W. L. S., 34. Simpson, Dr. , 27. Simpson, Thomas, 34. Singer, Dr. , 28. Sisson, Henry, 59. Sisson, S. H., 33. Slavery Question, 18, 47, 48. Smith, E. W., 33. Smith, Dr. Edwin, 59. Smith, Henry, 35. Smith, John K., 33. Smith, Joseph A., 17. Smith, Kirby, 54. Smith, Milton C, 33. Smith, Robert, 16. Smith, Samuel, 33. Smith, Samuel H., 35. Smith, Samuel P., 43. Smith, William B., 35. Snider, J., 34. Southall, Joseph J. B., 35. Soule, Bishop Joshua, 25, 27. Soule, W. M., 33. Spawling, P. S., 34. Spencer, A. O., 38. Spencer, Alexander D., 34. Spencer, Francis W., 36. Spencer, Rev. Oliver M., 28. Spencer, Samuel A., 36, 43. Spencer, Samuel C, 34. Spiker, Baldwin H., 36. Stairs, Oliver, 55. Stamper, Jonathan, 23, 43. Starkey, I. R., 34. Starkey, William G, 34. Starks, David, hatter's shop, 16, 18. Steen, Dr. Charles G, 60. Steen, Dr. M. W., 60. Sterling, R. G, 49. Stevalter, C, 59. Stevenson, Rev. Daniel, 23, 57. Stewart, W. H, 27, 34, 37. Stiles, David M., 35. Stiles, William M., 35. Stockton, Lucien D., 36, 43. Stockwell, John, 33. Stoeckle, Dr. Joseph, 59. Stone, Richard A., 33. Story, John B., 55. Stoudemire, Glenn G., 36. Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 51. Stroube, John, 59. Stroube, N. J., 59. Students' names, 32-36. Swayze, Caleb L., 36. Swormstedt, Rev. Leroy, 43. Augusta College 71 Taft, Hulbert, 29. Taft, Peter R., 29. Taft, Pres. William Howard, 29. Taliaferro, , 16, 27. Targowski, Charles, 43, 44. Taylor, B. F., 59. Taylor, Benjamin, 33. Taylor, Carolyn, 7. Taylor, Emma, see Rankins. Taylor, Dr. H. B., 59. Taylor, John, 51. Taylor, Milton, 59. Taylor, Thomas, 59. Taylor, Dr. William H., 29, 55. Taylor, W. P., 54. Taylor, Walter, 43, 58. Tebbs, John, 13. Tebbs, Thomas, 13. Teegarden, George, 59. Tefft, Rev. , 36. Tenth Ky. Cavalry, 55. Thomas, John H., 36. Thomas, L. P., 33. Thomas, Nicholas, 28. Thomas, Samuel, 16. Thome, Arthur, 28. Thome, James A., 36. Thome, Robert, 16. Thompson, Dr. , 36. Thompson, Edward, 59. Thompson, James A., 59. Thompson, John E., 7. Thorp, Charles W., 36. Thorp, James L., 36. Todd, John, 28. Toleman, Edwin, 59. Tomlinson, C. C, 33. Tomlinson, Dr. John N., 18, 26, 47. Tomlinson, John F., 28. Tomlinson, John G., 33. Tomlinson, Dr. Joseph S., 26, 43, 47. Tomlinson, W. C, 33. Transylvania University, 30, 57. Tribbey. George, 36. Trimble, Allen, 27. Trimble, Rev. Joseph M., 27, 43. Tripplett, William, 14. Union College, ftn. 50, 57. Union Literary Society, 31, 32, 49. Van Antwerp, Lewis, 31. Vandene, L. F., 34. Vandorn, A., 33. Veach, Mrs. , 54. Veterans of Foreign Wars, 61. Vick, Osvet H., 33. Vincent, John, 27, 36. Virginia Families, 16. Wadsworth, William H., 29, 33. Walden, Charles W., 36 Walker, Stuart, 30. Walker, W. T., 33. Ward, Gen. Durbin, 29. Waters, Barrett, 60. Waters, George R., 36. Watson, William, 33. Watts, William, 33. Wayland, William, 36. Weber, Louis, 59. Weimer, George Sr., 33. Weimer, Louis, 59. Weldon, James, 53. Weldon, Thomas, 29. Weldon, Vachel, 16, 17, 28, 54. Wells, Francis, 16, 17. Wells, Hayden, 13. Wells, Louis, 53. Wells, Samuel, 13. Whetstone, Richard A., 36, 43. Whetstone, Thomas H., 29. White, Mr. , 48. White, Lt. George, 53. White, William R., 34. Whiteman, Benjamin, 36. Whitney, Alexander H., 36. Whitney, Henry C, 34. Williams, Isaac Newton, 34. Williams, William D., 33. Wilson, Pvt., Confederate soldier, 53. Wilson, J. R., 59. Wilson, Thomas J., 33. Window shades, 60. Winn, Peter G., 36. Winter, John I., 59. Wittmeier, Dr. Joseph, 60. Wittmeier, Len, 59. Wittmeier, William, 59. Wolf, Lewis, 59. Wood, Stephen, 34. 72 Augusta College Wood, Stephen T., 36. Woods, Silas, 36. Woodward, William, 17. Work, William, 59. Worneweck, Mrs. Alfred C. Worthington, N. B., 55. Wright, H. G., ftn. 55. Yancy, G. M., 56. Young, Rev. David, 21. Young, Thomas, 14. Yates, R. P., 59. Zion's Advocate and Wesleyan Register, 1825, ftn. 22.